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Policy

Many aid organisations have recognised that to change the growing population rate, investing in women is pivotal. Today (Wednesday 11 July) is World Population Day and we will briefly discuss why changing the living conditions for women and girls is essential to preventing overpopulation.

Although population numbers have stabilised in many regions, recent data has indicated that the global population is set to rise to 10.9 bn people will exist on this earth by 2100.

Today, there are 1.2 bn Africans and, according to figures released by the UN, by 2021 there will be more than 4 bn, stressing the urgency to prioritise the population crisis. Making contraception easily available and improving comprehensive sexual education are key to reducing Africa’s population growth.

 Family photo of five sisters from Africa

Family photo of five sisters from Africa. Image: Sylvie Bouchard

Over 225 m women in developing countries have stressed their desire to delay or stop childbearing, but due to the lack of contraception, this has not been the result.

Family planning would prevent unsafe abortions, unintended pregnancies, which would, in turn, also prevent infant and maternal mortality. If there was a decrease in infant mortality as a result of better medical care, parents would be able to make more informed decisions about having more children. 

It is therefore pivotal that governments and organisations invest more money into projects that will strengthen the health services in these regions, and in women’s health and reproductive rights.

 Lessons on family planning

Lessons on family planning.

In Niger, there are an estimated 205 births per 1,000 women between the ages of 16 and 19 –  a rate that hasn’t changed since 1960. The number of births in Somalia, have increased from around 55 to 105 births per 1,000 women within the same age range in the same time period.

In Rwanda, figures from Rwanda Demographic and Health Survey illustrate an increase in the use of modern contraceptive methods among married women, but the unmet need for family planning remains a large issue, stagnating at 19% between 2010 and 2015. 

Rwanda’s leadership in creating platforms and programmes of action to progress sexual and reproductive health rights has resulted in a decrease in fertility rate, dropping from 6.1 children per women in 2005 to 4.2 in 2015.

 World map of the population growth rate

World map of the population growth rate. Image: Wikimedia Commons.

‘Every year, roughly 74 m women and girls in developing countries experience an unwanted pregnancy primarily because there is a lack of sex education and a lack of contraception. It’s also because women and girls aren’t given equal rights’" said Renate Bähr, Head of the German World Population Foundation (DSW).

With opportunities and access to education, women and girls would be able to understand their rights to voluntary family planning. If women’s access to reproductive education and healthcare services were prioritised, public health and population issues would improve.


Health & Wellbeing

Vaccines are much debated these days, but before starting a discussion about them, let’s see how a vaccine is defined.

The World Health Organisation defines a vaccine as: 

‘a biological preparation that improves immunity to a particular disease. A vaccine typically contains an agent that resembles a disease-causing microorganism, and is often made from weakened or killed forms of the microbe, its toxins or one of its surface proteins. The agent stimulates the body’s immune system to recognize the agent as foreign, destroy it, and “remember” it, so that the immune system can more easily recognize and destroy any of these microorganisms that it later encounters.’

We put in our bodies something that looks like or has a tiny part of the ‘microbe’ that produces the disease so that our body can produce the right agents to fight it in case we actually contract the real illness.

A vaccine is comprised of an active ingredient and other added ingredients. Like any other drug, the active ingredient is the key component that triggers the immune response. Beside this, the added ingredients have different roles, such as improving the immune response, or acting as a preservative, stabiliser, or suspending fluid.

These added ingredients are the ones that are sometimes contested due to their toxicity. But when speaking about toxicity, there is a very important point to make. Everything is toxic.

It all comes down to the dose you eat, drink, or otherwise insert into your body. An important indicator of toxicity is LD50 (lethal dose 50), which is the dose at which 50% of individuals die. Sodium chloride, also known as table salt, has a LD50 of 12,400mg/kg (868g of salt for a 70kg individual) for humans. The lower the LD50 indicator is, the more toxic a compound is.

saltbae gif

Originally posted by gifsme

Table salt can also be toxic. 

Aluminium salts are used in many vaccines as adjuvants. This means that they help by stimulating the immune response and by a slow release of the active ingredient.

The most used salts are aluminium hydroxide, aluminium phosphate and potassium aluminium sulphate. Data about these compounds are freely accessible by searching for their material safety data sheets (MSDS) on the big chemical suppliers’ websites. The 11th section of an MSDS file is the toxicological information section, which contains the LD50 value, carcinogenicity information, and others.

 aluminium phosphate MSDS

Section 11 of the aluminium phosphate MSDS Sigma-Aldrich

None of the salts above are reported as carcinogenic, and the LD50 of aluminium phosphate is more than 5,000mg/kg for mice. The total quantity of the aluminium in a vaccine is less 1mg (0.001g), which is a very low quantity. In the normal European diet the amount of aluminium we intake from food varies between 3–10mg a day.

Vaccine composition lists also include compounds and products used in the manufacturing process – even though at the end of manufacture they are present only in trace amounts, if at all.

One of the chemicals on this list that scares people is formaldehyde, which is indeed carcinogenic with and LD50 of 42mg/kg for mice. Nevertheless, the quantity present in a vaccine dose is less 0.1 mg. One 200g pear contains 12mg of formaldehyde. We should always remember ‘the dose makes the poison’, as compound interest illustrates below.

 chemicals in food

The does makes the poison – ‘toxic’ chemicals in food. Compound Interest

Vaccination is a personal decision. Nevertheless, it should be based on information from multiple verified sources. Easily accessible and clear information can be found on the Vaccine Knowledge Project website designed by the Vaccine Research Group from the University of Oxford.