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Science & Innovation

The second annual Huxley Summit, run by the British Science Association, aimed to explore The will of the people? Science and innovation in a post-truth world. The leadership event invites delegates from political, academic, and corporate backgrounds to debate key scientific themes that present social challenges for the 21st Century.

A running debate throughout the day was the use of big data and the rise of artificial intelligence, with a panel of experts ready to discuss the problems of the present and the immediate future.


Protect your privacy

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Online shopping is one of the ways consumers share their personal information. Image: Shutterstock

Big data is a topic that the public engages with every day, sometimes without knowing it. Each time you buy some new shoes, even book an appointment at the GP online, you are sharing data.

Banks can now reportedly predict when a couple is about to get divorced, based on how much a husband lowers his wife’s credit limit in the months leading to the split, said Pippa Malmgren, founder of H Robotics.

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Originally posted by hollywoodmarcia

While a funny anecdote, facts like this are part of ongoing concerns over the ethics of data use. Should artificial intelligence be programmed to find facts like these if a person isn’t willing for their data to be used in this way?

The lack of regulation of big data and understanding of the importance of our personal information means data can sometimes be misused. ‘PayPal’s data agreement is 36,000 words. All of Hamlet is 30,000. So the quick click we do to accept T&C’s makes all of us liars,’ said Richard Thomas, who was the UK’s first Information Commissioner, from 2002-09.


Data breach

Chi Onwurah speaking at the 2017 Huxley Summit. Video: British Science Association

There are arguments that we are too late in the game when implementing data regulations, said the panel. After years of sharing data, it is only now, after several major controversies, that the government is seriously considering penalties for companies that do not inform customers about data breaches.

Uber’s recent infamous coverup and the security breach of all 3 billion Yahoo accounts are just two well-known examples. Companies should no doubt be responsible for informing their customers when they have been hacked, agreed the panel, but are they liable for the breach itself? These are the questions that need to be explored immediately, said Chi Onwurah, Shadow Science Minister.

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The Uber hack reportedly affected 57,000 customers and drivers. Image: Wikimedia Commons 

So, ‘how do we deal with the politics of data?’ said Azeem Azhar, a strategist and analyst known for his technology newsletter Exponential View. ‘And how do we make sure that these automated systems facilitate to build a world that we want from the data we’ve given it, not merely reinforce the world that we have?’


A better world

One of the great advantages of data sharing will be in healthcare, said Azhar. It has been reported that the average human body contains nearly 150tr GB of information – the equivalent of 75bn 16GB iPads.

How big data could transform the healthcare industry. Video: HuffPost

With greater access to this huge data resource, healthcare experts could develop systems that can accurately predict the occurrence of disease and revolutionise treatments for patients. The NHS already has a running data management hub – a collaborate effort funded by the National Institute for Health Research, among others – that researchers and staff use to access secure data for R&D.

While a costly and time-consuming task today, it is these breakthroughs that will make the difference in the societies of the future.

Careers

The second annual Huxley Summit, run by the British Science Association, aimed to explore The will of the people? Science and innovation in a post-truth world. The leadership event invites delegates from political, academic, and corporate backgrounds to debate key scientific themes that present social challenges for the 21st Century.

A running debate throughout the day was the use of big data and the rise of artificial intelligence, with a panel of experts ready to discuss the problems of the present and the immediate future.


Protect your privacy

 Online shopping

Online shopping is one of the ways consumers share their personal information. Image: Shutterstock

Big data is a topic that the public engages with every day, sometimes without knowing it. Each time you buy some new shoes, even book an appointment at the GP online, you are sharing data.

Banks can now reportedly predict when a couple is about to get divorced, based on how much a husband lowers his wife’s credit limit in the months leading to the split, said Pippa Malmgren, founder of H Robotics.

phone call gif

Originally posted by hollywoodmarcia

While a funny anecdote, facts like this are part of ongoing concerns over the ethics of data use. Should artificial intelligence be programmed to find facts like these if a person isn’t willing for their data to be used in this way?

The lack of regulation of big data and understanding of the importance of our personal information means data can sometimes be misused. ‘PayPal’s data agreement is 36,000 words. All of Hamlet is 30,000. So the quick click we do to accept T&C’s makes all of us liars,’ said Richard Thomas, who was the UK’s first Information Commissioner, from 2002-09.


Data breach

Chi Onwurah speaking at the 2017 Huxley Summit. Video: British Science Association

There are arguments that we are too late in the game when implementing data regulations, said the panel. After years of sharing data, it is only now, after several major controversies, that the government is seriously considering penalties for companies that do not inform customers about data breaches.

Uber’s recent infamous coverup and the security breach of all 3 billion Yahoo accounts are just two well-known examples. Companies should no doubt be responsible for informing their customers when they have been hacked, agreed the panel, but are they liable for the breach itself? These are the questions that need to be explored immediately, said Chi Onwurah, Shadow Science Minister.

 The Uber hack

The Uber hack reportedly affected 57,000 customers and drivers. Image: Wikimedia Commons 

So, ‘how do we deal with the politics of data?’ said Azeem Azhar, a strategist and analyst known for his technology newsletter Exponential View. ‘And how do we make sure that these automated systems facilitate to build a world that we want from the data we’ve given it, not merely reinforce the world that we have?’


A better world

One of the great advantages of data sharing will be in healthcare, said Azhar. It has been reported that the average human body contains nearly 150tr GB of information – the equivalent of 75bn 16GB iPads.

How big data could transform the healthcare industry. Video: HuffPost

With greater access to this huge data resource, healthcare experts could develop systems that can accurately predict the occurrence of disease and revolutionise treatments for patients. The NHS already has a running data management hub – a collaborate effort funded by the National Institute for Health Research, among others – that researchers and staff use to access secure data for R&D.

While a costly and time-consuming task today, it is these breakthroughs that will make the difference in the societies of the future.

Careers

Artificial intelligence (AI) – the ability of any man-made device to perceive its environment, identify a goal, and take rational actions to that end – can seem like a concept of science fiction. Recently, however, exponential growth in the field, with developments such as driverless cars, has made the prospect very real. The pace of change has led many to express concern about the dangers of artificial AI, although most of the potential benefits are yet to be realised.

A key aspect when trying to understand AI is knowledge of ‘machine learning’. Previously, software had to be ‘taught’ everything by the programmer, but this is no longer the case. DeepMind, one of the world’s leading groups in developing artificial intelligence, has seen considerable investment from high profile figures such as Elon Musk and has recently been acquired by Google’s parent company, Alphabet.

 

DeepMind claims to have developed software that mimics human imagination by considering the possible consequences of their actions and interpreting the results, ignoring irrelevant information. This allows the software to plan ahead, solving tasks in fewer steps and performing much better than conventional AI.

Could machines become better than humans?

There is plenty to suggest that AI, if managed correctly, could positively benefit society, tackling issues such as global warming and healthcare. On the other hand, sceptics argue that the developments in AI will drastically disrupt many industries. 

A decade ago, truck drivers were thought to be irreplaceable; now, Tesla and many other companies are making autonomous self-driving cars a reality. The pharmaceutical industry may also see immense changes; incredibly complex computational biological models will soon be able to fully predict drug mechanisms and interactions, allowing for much better analysis and speeding up the currently painstakingly slow clinical trial process for new drugs.

 Ubers selfdriving car

Uber’s self-driving car being testing in Pittsburgh. Image: Rex

It isn’t only drivers that are at risk of losing their jobs. Historian Yuval Noah Harari states that, just like the industrial revolution lessened the requirement for manual labour, the AI revolution will create vast amounts of unemployable people as their skills become redundant. 

Carl Benedikt Frey and Michael A Osborne from the University of Oxford predict that 47% of jobs are at high risk of being taken over by computer algorithms by 2033. Their list of jobs is striking – insurance underwriters, chefs, waiters, carpenters, and lifeguards are all at high risk of being superfluous. The displacement of human workers because of AI will be one of the key issues that policymakers and governments must consider going into the future.

 Elon Musk

Elon Musk, Founder of SpaceX and CEO of Tesla, Inc. Image: TED Conference

What could go wrong?

Facebook had to shut down its most recent AI system after it discovered that its chatbots were communicating between themselves in a new language that used English words but could not be understood by humans. Although the AI agents were rewarded for negotiating efficiently, they were not confined to just using English. The result was that they deviated from it and instead opted to create a language that was easier and faster for them to communicate, causing the social media giant to pull the plug on the system.

Elon Musk, founder of SpaceX and co-founder of PayPal, has very strong views about the development of AI, famously stating that AI is an ‘existential risk for human civilisation’. He raises interesting questions about cybersecurity and malicious AI that may be exploited by hackers to destabilise the outdated and less intelligent software that often controls the electricity and water of the world’s cities.

Above: Musk in Conversation with Max Tegmark, author of Life 3.0: Being Human in the Age of Artificial Intelligence 

AI is a rare case where we need to be proactive in regulation instead of reactive because ‘if we’re reactive in AI regulation it’s too late’, he said. At the moment, the technology is far from the apocalyptic, self-evolving software that haunts Musk. But we are becoming more and more accustomed to AI in our daily life; for example, Apple’s Siri interpreting voice commands and Facebook’s targeted advertising system.


 Hermann Hauser

Hermann Hauser Image: Franz Johann Morgenbesser

Interested in AI?

SCI is running a Public Evening Lecture in London on Wednesday 25 October – Machine Intelligence: Are Machines Better than Humans? The talk will be given by Hermann Hauser, co-founder of Amadeus Capital Partners, Acorn Computers, and ARM. It is free to attend, but spaces are limited. Don’t miss out – book your place here.