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Science & Innovation

In this second article in our ‘How to…’ series, we reflect on what we learned from Mugdha Joshi, IP & Licensing expert at Kings College London, in her training session on Intellectual Property.

What is Intellectual Property?

Intellectual Property (IP) is a term that refers to the ‘creations of the mind’ such as inventions, works of art and symbols, names and images used in commerce.

 lightbulb

Types of IP

Patents - Works to prevent another person from being able to use the same invention. They cover how inventions work, how they do it, what they are made of and how they are made. A patent lasts for 20 years and it must be renewed on its fourth anniversary. It then must be renewed every year. After 20 years the patent is given to the public. To qualify for a patent, the invention needs to meet the following criteria:

- The invention needs to be undisclosed and not in the public domain before the date of filing. However, any disclosure under a non-disclosure agreement is fine.

- Your idea needs an inventive step that is not obvious to someone with knowledge of the subject.

- It must be a solution to a problem.

- It must be something that can be made and not just speculative.

Copyrights – Protects work created by their author. It must be the author’s own intellectual creation and not have been copied from somewhere else.

Designs – This refers to the aesthetic aspects of an article. It protects 3D objects, or the designs applied to them.

Trademarks – A distinctive sign that identifies certain goods or properties provided by an individual or a company.

 patent graphic

Commercialisation of IP

The commercialisation process involves:

Market analysis - What does your product solve? Why is it better than your competition? Who wants it and why? What are its limitations? What is the development time? (Click here for more on marketing).

Due Diligence - In-depth research of your company and invention and will include schedules of patents, copyrights and trademarks

IP protection -  Prior art search and patent attorney. You must ensure there is no evidence of your idea already being known.

Proof of concept fund

Marketing - Reaching out to companies and sending non-confidential flyers

Licensing - What’s down the pipeline? Exclusive or non-exclusive licence? What obligations are there, e.g. development milestones?

Spit-out creation - What do venture capitalists look for? They will want to see all your documentation that demonstrates that you meet various requirements. They will want to see your granted patents. It is a good idea to have a portfolio with multiple aspects of the product covered. They want to see that your product and company is professionally managed and that there are no issues of contested ownership or opposition.

 IP graphic

The Bright SCIdea Challenge 2020 Final

SCI are unable to protect any intellectual property submitted as part of the competition. It is in your best interest to not disclose any information that could give away key aspects of your innovation for others to reproduce.


Health & Wellbeing

The first perfumes designed by AI are slated for launch in mid-2019 in Brazil. Developed at IBM, in partnership with perfume company Symrise, the AI programme used drew upon a database of 1.7m different fragrance formulas, and used information on raw materials and the success of previously developed perfumes. It was also taught to identify which fragrances people found similar and dissimilar – getting training akin to an apprentice perfumer.

perfume

Called Philyra, after the Greek goddess of fragrance, the AI programme developed two new fragrances for Brazilian beauty company O Boticário. 

‘What she did was super innovative. She had a sweet warm background, but added cardamom-like Indian cuisine scents and a milk that came from the flavour department,’ says David Apel, Senior Perfumer with Symrise. ‘From 1.7m formulas, it is amazing for her to find something that hadn’t been done before.’

Using AI to create new fragrances. Video: IBM Research

In a demonstration at IBM Research in Zurich, Switzerland, computational researcher Richard Goodwin demonstrated how Philyra is able to scan 1,000 different formulations, and over 60 raw materials, and compare them with fragrances currently on the marketplace. It is possible to request a certain type of perfume and adjust its novelty.


Sustainability & Environment

Figures on global data availability and growth are staggering. Data are expected to grow by an astounding factor of 300 between 2005 and 2020, and are predicted to reach 40 trillion bytes by 2020. This creates significant opportunities for data-based decision-making in industries such as agriculture.

Indeed, ongoing developments in precision agriculture and web-based apps can help the farmer to greatly enhance their efficiency, productivity and sustainability, and to prepare themselves for potentially catastrophic climatic events in real time.

pouring milk gif

Originally posted by itadakimasu-letmeeat

On the other hand, farmers have traditionally relied on a more conventional approach for monitoring and improving their performance, namely, benchmarking. In a nutshell, benchmarking is about comparing one’s performance to that of their peers in terms of one or more performance indicators, typically expressed as ratios – i.e. output over input.

For instance, a dairy farmer may want to know how far their milk production per cow is from the top 10% of farms, or whether farms with a different management strategy than theirs (e.g. pasture-based farm vs. all-year housed system) could deliver higher milk yields. Farm benchmarking reports are standard practice in agricultural extension and consultancy.

However, these reports can be overly simplistic, because partial performance ratios cannot capture the multifaceted nature of agricultural sustainability, encompassing environmental (e.g. carbon footprints), social (e.g. labour use) and other indicators (e.g. animal health and welfare), in addition to economic and technical ones.


Agrifood

Currently one of the least digitised industries in the world, the agricultural sector is fast becoming a hub of innovation in robotics. One report suggests the agricultural robotics industry will be worth £8.5bn by 2027.

Feeding the increasing global population – set to hit 8bn by 2023 –  is a major concern in the sector, with farmers already stretched to capacity with current technology.

With this said, the European Commission – via Horizon 2020 – has launched a programme and fund to drive research and innovation in the area. Developments in precision agriculture, which uses data and technology for a more controlled approach to farming management, has been particularly encouraging.

But similar to other labour-intensive industries, such as manufacturing, robots could be used to relieve workers in difficult conditions, and there are many projects close to commercialisation.

vegetables gif

Originally posted by edible3d

Picking peppers

One such project is SWEEPER – a greenhouse harvesting tool that can detect when sweet peppers are ready to harvest through sensors. SWEEPER runs between the vines on a rail and uses GPS tracking to navigate through its environment.

Although focusing on sweet peppers for this research, the group say that the technology could be applied to other fruits and crops.

The EU-funded consortium in charge of the development of the SWEEPER robot is made up of six academic and industry partners from four countries: Belgium, Sweden, Israel and the Netherlands, where the research is based.

Greenhouses pose harsh working conditions during harvesting season, including excessive heat, humidity, and long hours.

 

The SWEEPER robot in action. Video: WUR Glastuinbouw

‘The reduction in the labour force has put major pressure on the competitiveness of the European greenhouse sector,’ said Jos Balendonck, project coordinator from Wageningen University & Research, the Netherlands.

‘We hope to develop the technology that will prevent greenhouse food production from migrating out of Europe due to the 40 % expected rise in labour costs over the coming decade.’

Currently testing the second version of the robot, the research group already envision adding improvements – from sensors that can detect vitamin content, sweetness levels and the sweet pepper’s expected shelf life to the ability to alert farmers when crop disease could hit their crops in advance.

A world first

Meanwhile, engineers at Harper Adams University in Shropshire, UK, and agriculture firm Precision Decisions have become the first group to harvest a crop completely autonomously.

The Hands Free Hectare project – funded by Innovate UK – modified existing farming machinery to incorporate open-source data that would allow the control systems to be located externally.

At the start of the season, an autonomous tractor sows the crops into the soil using GPS positioning, and sprays them periodically with pesticides throughout their growth. A separate rover takes soil samples to analyse nutrient content and to check pH levels are maintained.

When the crops begin to sprout from the ground a drone is used to monitor growth by taking images. Finally, a combine harvester controlled from outside of the field harvests the crops.

Kit Franklin, an Agricultural Engineering lecturer at the university, said: ‘As a team, we believe there is now no technological barrier to automated field agriculture. This project gives us the opportunity to prove this and change current public perception.’

 Hands Free Hectare

Image: Hands Free Hectare

Despite innovation in the area, farmers have been slow to embrace the new technology, partially due to the lack of high quality data available that would allow more flexibility in the sector. Others, including the wider public, worry that development will lead to job losses in the industry.

However, scientists say the jobs will still be there but farmers and agricultural workers will use their skills to control the autonomous systems from behind the scenes instead.

‘Automation will facilitate a sustainable system where multiple smaller, lighter machines will enter the field, minimising the level of compaction,’ said Franklin.

‘These small autonomous machines will in turn facilitate high resolution precision farming, where different areas of the field, and possibly even individual plants can be treated separately, optimising and potentially reducing inputs being used in field agriculture.’

Materials

With an ever-increasing demand for data storage, the race is on to develop new materials that offer greater storage density. Researchers have identified a host of exotic materials that use new ways to pack ‘1’s and ‘0’s into ever-smaller spaces.

And, while many of them are still lab curiosities, they offer the potential to improve data storage density by 100 times or more.


Having a moment

 floppy disks

Data storage technology has moved quickly away from floppy disks (pictured) and CD-DOMs. Image: Pexels

The principle behind many storage media is to use magnetic ‘read’ and ‘write’ heads, an idea also exploited by many of these new technologies – albeit on a much smaller scale.

A good example is recent work from Manchester University, UK, where researchers have raised the temperature at which ‘single molecule magnets’ can be magnetised. Single-molecule magnets could have 100 times the data storage density of existing memory devices.

In theory, any molecular entity can be used to store data as reversing its polarity can switch it from a ‘1’ to a ‘0’. In this case, instead of reading and writing areas of a magnetic disk, the researchers have created single molecules that exhibit magnetic ‘hysteresis’ – a prerequisite for data storage.

 

Researchers discuss the circuit boards in development that negotiate Moore’s Law. Video: Chemistry at The University of Manchester

‘You need a molecule that has its magnetic moment in two directions,’ says Nick Chilton, Ramsay Memorial research fellow in the school of chemistry. ‘To realise this in a single molecule, you need very specific conditions.’

In addition to having a strong magnetic moment, the molecule needs a slow relaxation time – that is, the time it takes for the molecule to ‘flip’ naturally from a ‘1’ to a ‘0’.  ‘If this time is effectively indefinite, it would be useful for data storage,’ he says.

The key is that the molecule itself must have a magnetic moment. So, while a bulk substance such as iron oxide is ‘magnetic’, individual iron oxide particles are not.

 binary digit

A binary digit, or bit, is the smallest unit of data in computing. The system is used in nearly all modern computers and technology. Image: Pixabay

Chilton and his colleagues have identified and synthesised a single-molecule magnet – a dysprosium atom, sandwiched between two cyclopentadienyl rings – that can be magnetised at 60K. This is 46K higher than any previous single-molecule magnet – and only 17K below the temperature of liquid nitrogen.

Being able to work with liquid nitrogen – rather than liquid helium – would bring the cost of a storage device down dramatically, says Chilton. To do this, the researchers must now model and make new structures that will work at 77K or higher.


Bit player

Skyrmions may sound like a new adversary for Doctor Who, but they are actually another swirl-like magnetic entity that could be used to represent a bit of digital data.

doctor who gif

Originally posted by doctorwho247

Scientists at the Max Born Institute (MBI), Germany – in collaboration with colleagues from Massachusetts Institute of Technology, US – have devised a way to generate skyrmions in a controllable way, by building a ‘racetrack’ nanowire memory device that might in future be incorporated into a conventional memory chip.

‘Skyrmions can be conceived as particles – because that’s how they act,’ says Bastian Pfau, a postdoctoral researcher at MBI, as they are generated using a current pulse.

‘Earlier research put a lot of current pulses through a racetrack and created a skyrmion randomly,’ he says. ‘We’ve created them in a controlled and integrated way: they’re created on the racetrack exactly where you want them.’

 Max Born Institute

This racetrack memory device could be incorporated into standard memory chips, say researchers at the Max Born Institute. Credit: Grafix 

In fact, skyrmions can be both created and moved using current pulses – but the pulse for creating them is slightly stronger than the one that moves them. The advantage of using a current pulse is that it requires no moving parts.

The resulting racetrack is a three-layer nanowire about 20nm thick – a structure that will hold around 100 skyrmions along a one-micron length of wire.

While the current research is done ‘in the plane’ with the nanowires held horizontally, Pfau says that in the future, wires could be stacked vertically in an array to boost storage capacity. ‘This would increase the storage density by 100. But this is in the future and nobody has made a strip line that’s vertical yet.’

Could magnetic skyrmions hold the answer to better data storage? Video: Durham University

‘The whole function depends on how you create the multi-layer,’ he says. To stand any chance of being commercialised, which might take six or eight years, Pfau says that new materials will be needed.

However, he is confident this will happen – and that the technology can be merged with ‘conventional’ electronic devices.

Materials

With an ever-increasing demand for data storage, the race is on to develop new materials that offer greater storage density. Researchers have identified a host of exotic materials that use new ways to pack ‘1’s and ‘0’s into ever-smaller spaces.

And, while many of them are still lab curiosities, they offer the potential to improve data storage density by 100 times or more.


Having a moment

 floppy disks

Data storage technology has moved quickly away from floppy disks (pictured) and CD-DOMs. Image: Pexels

The principle behind many storage media is to use magnetic ‘read’ and ‘write’ heads, an idea also exploited by many of these new technologies – albeit on a much smaller scale.

A good example is recent work from Manchester University, UK, where researchers have raised the temperature at which ‘single molecule magnets’ can be magnetised. Single-molecule magnets could have 100 times the data storage density of existing memory devices.

In theory, any molecular entity can be used to store data as reversing its polarity can switch it from a ‘1’ to a ‘0’. In this case, instead of reading and writing areas of a magnetic disk, the researchers have created single molecules that exhibit magnetic ‘hysteresis’ – a prerequisite for data storage.

 

Researchers discuss the circuit boards in development that negotiate Moore’s Law. Video: Chemistry at The University of Manchester

‘You need a molecule that has its magnetic moment in two directions,’ says Nick Chilton, Ramsay Memorial research fellow in the school of chemistry. ‘To realise this in a single molecule, you need very specific conditions.’

In addition to having a strong magnetic moment, the molecule needs a slow relaxation time – that is, the time it takes for the molecule to ‘flip’ naturally from a ‘1’ to a ‘0’.  ‘If this time is effectively indefinite, it would be useful for data storage,’ he says.

The key is that the molecule itself must have a magnetic moment. So, while a bulk substance such as iron oxide is ‘magnetic’, individual iron oxide particles are not.

 binary digit

A binary digit, or bit, is the smallest unit of data in computing. The system is used in nearly all modern computers and technology. Image: Pixabay

Chilton and his colleagues have identified and synthesised a single-molecule magnet – a dysprosium atom, sandwiched between two cyclopentadienyl rings – that can be magnetised at 60K. This is 46K higher than any previous single-molecule magnet – and only 17K below the temperature of liquid nitrogen.

Being able to work with liquid nitrogen – rather than liquid helium – would bring the cost of a storage device down dramatically, says Chilton. To do this, the researchers must now model and make new structures that will work at 77K or higher.


Bit player

Skyrmions may sound like a new adversary for Doctor Who, but they are actually another swirl-like magnetic entity that could be used to represent a bit of digital data.

doctor who gif

Originally posted by doctorwho247

Scientists at the Max Born Institute (MBI), Germany – in collaboration with colleagues from Massachusetts Institute of Technology, US – have devised a way to generate skyrmions in a controllable way, by building a ‘racetrack’ nanowire memory device that might in future be incorporated into a conventional memory chip.

‘Skyrmions can be conceived as particles – because that’s how they act,’ says Bastian Pfau, a postdoctoral researcher at MBI, as they are generated using a current pulse.

‘Earlier research put a lot of current pulses through a racetrack and created a skyrmion randomly,’ he says. ‘We’ve created them in a controlled and integrated way: they’re created on the racetrack exactly where you want them.’

 Max Born Institute

This racetrack memory device could be incorporated into standard memory chips, say researchers at the Max Born Institute. Credit: Grafix 

In fact, skyrmions can be both created and moved using current pulses – but the pulse for creating them is slightly stronger than the one that moves them. The advantage of using a current pulse is that it requires no moving parts.

The resulting racetrack is a three-layer nanowire about 20nm thick – a structure that will hold around 100 skyrmions along a one-micron length of wire.

While the current research is done ‘in the plane’ with the nanowires held horizontally, Pfau says that in the future, wires could be stacked vertically in an array to boost storage capacity. ‘This would increase the storage density by 100. But this is in the future and nobody has made a strip line that’s vertical yet.’

Could magnetic skyrmions hold the answer to better data storage? Video: Durham University

‘The whole function depends on how you create the multi-layer,’ he says. To stand any chance of being commercialised, which might take six or eight years, Pfau says that new materials will be needed.

However, he is confident this will happen – and that the technology can be merged with ‘conventional’ electronic devices.

Science & Innovation

The second annual Huxley Summit, run by the British Science Association, aimed to explore The will of the people? Science and innovation in a post-truth world. The leadership event invites delegates from political, academic, and corporate backgrounds to debate key scientific themes that present social challenges for the 21st Century.

A running debate throughout the day was the use of big data and the rise of artificial intelligence, with a panel of experts ready to discuss the problems of the present and the immediate future.


Protect your privacy

image

Online shopping is one of the ways consumers share their personal information. Image: Shutterstock

Big data is a topic that the public engages with every day, sometimes without knowing it. Each time you buy some new shoes, even book an appointment at the GP online, you are sharing data.

Banks can now reportedly predict when a couple is about to get divorced, based on how much a husband lowers his wife’s credit limit in the months leading to the split, said Pippa Malmgren, founder of H Robotics.

image

Originally posted by hollywoodmarcia

While a funny anecdote, facts like this are part of ongoing concerns over the ethics of data use. Should artificial intelligence be programmed to find facts like these if a person isn’t willing for their data to be used in this way?

The lack of regulation of big data and understanding of the importance of our personal information means data can sometimes be misused. ‘PayPal’s data agreement is 36,000 words. All of Hamlet is 30,000. So the quick click we do to accept T&C’s makes all of us liars,’ said Richard Thomas, who was the UK’s first Information Commissioner, from 2002-09.


Data breach

Chi Onwurah speaking at the 2017 Huxley Summit. Video: British Science Association

There are arguments that we are too late in the game when implementing data regulations, said the panel. After years of sharing data, it is only now, after several major controversies, that the government is seriously considering penalties for companies that do not inform customers about data breaches.

Uber’s recent infamous coverup and the security breach of all 3 billion Yahoo accounts are just two well-known examples. Companies should no doubt be responsible for informing their customers when they have been hacked, agreed the panel, but are they liable for the breach itself? These are the questions that need to be explored immediately, said Chi Onwurah, Shadow Science Minister.

image

The Uber hack reportedly affected 57,000 customers and drivers. Image: Wikimedia Commons 

So, ‘how do we deal with the politics of data?’ said Azeem Azhar, a strategist and analyst known for his technology newsletter Exponential View. ‘And how do we make sure that these automated systems facilitate to build a world that we want from the data we’ve given it, not merely reinforce the world that we have?’


A better world

One of the great advantages of data sharing will be in healthcare, said Azhar. It has been reported that the average human body contains nearly 150tr GB of information – the equivalent of 75bn 16GB iPads.

How big data could transform the healthcare industry. Video: HuffPost

With greater access to this huge data resource, healthcare experts could develop systems that can accurately predict the occurrence of disease and revolutionise treatments for patients. The NHS already has a running data management hub – a collaborate effort funded by the National Institute for Health Research, among others – that researchers and staff use to access secure data for R&D.

While a costly and time-consuming task today, it is these breakthroughs that will make the difference in the societies of the future.

Careers

The second annual Huxley Summit, run by the British Science Association, aimed to explore The will of the people? Science and innovation in a post-truth world. The leadership event invites delegates from political, academic, and corporate backgrounds to debate key scientific themes that present social challenges for the 21st Century.

A running debate throughout the day was the use of big data and the rise of artificial intelligence, with a panel of experts ready to discuss the problems of the present and the immediate future.


Protect your privacy

 Online shopping

Online shopping is one of the ways consumers share their personal information. Image: Shutterstock

Big data is a topic that the public engages with every day, sometimes without knowing it. Each time you buy some new shoes, even book an appointment at the GP online, you are sharing data.

Banks can now reportedly predict when a couple is about to get divorced, based on how much a husband lowers his wife’s credit limit in the months leading to the split, said Pippa Malmgren, founder of H Robotics.

phone call gif

Originally posted by hollywoodmarcia

While a funny anecdote, facts like this are part of ongoing concerns over the ethics of data use. Should artificial intelligence be programmed to find facts like these if a person isn’t willing for their data to be used in this way?

The lack of regulation of big data and understanding of the importance of our personal information means data can sometimes be misused. ‘PayPal’s data agreement is 36,000 words. All of Hamlet is 30,000. So the quick click we do to accept T&C’s makes all of us liars,’ said Richard Thomas, who was the UK’s first Information Commissioner, from 2002-09.


Data breach

Chi Onwurah speaking at the 2017 Huxley Summit. Video: British Science Association

There are arguments that we are too late in the game when implementing data regulations, said the panel. After years of sharing data, it is only now, after several major controversies, that the government is seriously considering penalties for companies that do not inform customers about data breaches.

Uber’s recent infamous coverup and the security breach of all 3 billion Yahoo accounts are just two well-known examples. Companies should no doubt be responsible for informing their customers when they have been hacked, agreed the panel, but are they liable for the breach itself? These are the questions that need to be explored immediately, said Chi Onwurah, Shadow Science Minister.

 The Uber hack

The Uber hack reportedly affected 57,000 customers and drivers. Image: Wikimedia Commons 

So, ‘how do we deal with the politics of data?’ said Azeem Azhar, a strategist and analyst known for his technology newsletter Exponential View. ‘And how do we make sure that these automated systems facilitate to build a world that we want from the data we’ve given it, not merely reinforce the world that we have?’


A better world

One of the great advantages of data sharing will be in healthcare, said Azhar. It has been reported that the average human body contains nearly 150tr GB of information – the equivalent of 75bn 16GB iPads.

How big data could transform the healthcare industry. Video: HuffPost

With greater access to this huge data resource, healthcare experts could develop systems that can accurately predict the occurrence of disease and revolutionise treatments for patients. The NHS already has a running data management hub – a collaborate effort funded by the National Institute for Health Research, among others – that researchers and staff use to access secure data for R&D.

While a costly and time-consuming task today, it is these breakthroughs that will make the difference in the societies of the future.