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Science & Innovation

2019 has been declared by UNESCO as the Year of the Periodic Table. To celebrate, we are releasing a series of blogs about our favourite elements and their importance to the chemical industry. Today’s blog focuses on tungsten.

History

Over three centuries ago, this metal was first used by porcelain makers in China. They used a tungsten pigment to incorporate a peach colour into their art work. In 1781, Wilhelm Scheele examined a metal containing tungsten and successfully isolated an acidic white oxide, deducing the oxide of the new metal. In 1783, Wilhelm’s brothers produced the same acidic metal oxide, and upon heating it with carbon, they successfully reduced it to tungsten.

 tungsten

Health concerns

Tungsten raises concerns regarding the health effects associated with its levels of toxicity. Initially, tungsten was perceived to be immobile in the environment and therefore used as a viable replacement for lead and uranium in military applications. However, reports showed traces of tungsten detected in soil and potable water sources, increasing the risk to human exposure. According to public health reports, it is unlikely that tungsten present in consumer products poses a hazard or causes any long-term health effects. Therefore, further assessment on the potential long-term health effects of tungsten exposure is still required.

 tungsten pot

Properties

Tungsten is a refractory metal and as it has the highest melting temperature of all metals, it is used across a range of applications. Tungsten is alloyed with other metals to strengthen them. This makes them useful to many high-temperature applications, including arc-welding electrodes.

 hazard assessment form

Properties

Tungsten is a refractory metal and as it has the highest melting temperature of all metals, it is used across a range of applications. Tungsten is alloyed with other metals to strengthen them. This makes them useful to many high-temperature applications, including arc-welding electrodes.

the simpsons gif - heat wave causes ink to fall off newspaper

Originally posted by everythingstarstuff

It is used as a novel material for glass parts due to its superior thermochemical stability. As it is a good electric conductor, it is also used in solar energy devices. Tungsten compounds act as catalysts for energy converting reactions, leading many manufacturers to investigate further uses of tungsten.


Science & Innovation

2019 has been declared by UNESCO as the Year of the Periodic Table. To celebrate, we are releasing a series of blogs about our favourite elements and their importance to the chemical industry. Today’s blog focuses on zinc and its contribution towards a sustainable future.  

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Foods high in zinc: Evan Lorne

Zinc is a naturally occurring element, considered a ‘life saving commodity’ by the United Nations. As well as playing a fundamental role in the natural development of biological processes, it is also highly recyclable which means that once it has reached the end of its life cycle, it can be recycled, and returned to the cycle as a new source of raw material. Statistically, around 45% of zinc in Europe and in the United States is recovered and recycled once it has reached the end of its life cycle.

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Circular and linear economy showing product life cycle:  Petovarga 

Circular economy is an economic model that focuses on waste reduction and ensuring a product that has reached its end cycle is not considered for disposal, but instead becomes used as a new source of raw material. Zinc fits this model; its lifecycle begins from mining and goes through a refining process to enable its use in society. Finally, it is recycled at the end of this process.

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The production of zinc-coated steel mill: gyn9037

Zinc contributes to the planet in various ways:

1.  Due to its recyclable nature, it lowers the demand for new raw material

2.  As zinc provides a protective coating for steel, it extends the lifecycle of steel products

3.  Coating steel reduces carbon dioxide emissions

As reported by the Swedish Environmental Protection Agency, zinc uses the lowest energy on a per unit weight and per unit volume basis, (with the exception of iron). Only a small amount of zinc is needed to conserve the energy of steel, and during electrolytic zinc production, only 7% of energy is used for mining and mineral processing.

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Green technology:  Petrmalinak

According to a new report published by The World Bank, ‘The Growing Role of Minerals and Metals for a Low-Carbon Future,’ a low carbon future and a rise in the use of green energy technologies will lead to an increased demand in a selected range of minerals and metals. These metals include aluminium, copper, lead, lithium, manganese, nickel, silver, steel, zinc and rare earth minerals. Hence, zinc will be one of the main metals to fill this demand.

Materials

2019 has been declared by UNESCO as the Year of the Periodic Table. To celebrate, we are releasing a series of blogs about our favourite elements and their importance to the chemical industry. Today’s blog focuses on titanium and its various uses in industries.

 titanium

What is titanium?

Titanium is a silver- coloured transition metal, exhibiting low density, high strength and a strong resistance to corrosion from water and chlorine. Suitably, titanium delivers many uses to various industries with approximately 6.6 million tonnes produced annually. 

Titanium Dioxide 

Titanium Dioxide is the most popular usage of titanium, composed of approximately of 90%. It is a white powder with high opacity; its properties have been made for a broad range of applications in paints, plastic good, inks and papers. Titanium dioxide is manufactured through the chloride process or the sulphate process. The sulphate process is the more popular process making up 70% of the production within the EU. 

 titanium in production

Aerospace industry 

Titanium’s characteristics - lightweight, strong and versatile, make titanium a valuable metal in the aerospace industry. In order for aircrafts to be safely airborne, the aerospace industry need parts which are both light and strong, and at the same time safe. Thus, titanium is seen as the most ideal match for these specifications.

 Aircraft

Dentistry

Titanium implants have been used with success, becoming a promising material in dentistry. As a result of its features, including its physiological inertia, resistance to corrosion, and biocompatibility, titanium plays an important role in the dental market.

 titanium dentistry

However, despite this, the technologies and systems used in the machining, casting and welding of titanium is slow and expensive. Despite the wide availability of these technologies and systems used in the process of creating dental prosthesis from titanium, it does depend on the technological advancements and the availability of resources, to create a more profitable and efficient manufacturing process.


Materials

2019 has been declared by UNESCO as the Year of the Periodic Table. To celebrate, we are releasing a series of blogs about our favourite elements and their importance to the chemical industry. Today’s blog focuses on cobalt and its current and potential uses.

 cobalt

History

In 1739, Georg Brandt, whilst studying minerals that gave gave glass a deep blue colour he discovered a new metal, namely cobalt.Today cobalt’s uses vary from health and nutrition to industry. Cobalt is an essential metal, used in the production of alloys to make rechargeable batteries and catalysts. Cobalt is an essential trace element for the human body, an important component of vitamin B12 and plays an essential role in forming amino acids, proteins in nerve cells and in creating neurotransmitters. 

 b12 diagram

 

 Cobalt is an important component of B12. Image source: flickr: Healthnutrition 

Cobalt and medicine 

The salts found in cobalt can be used as a form of treatment for anaemia, as well as having an important role for athletes acting as an alternative to traditional blood doping. This metal enhances synthesis of erythropoietin, increasing the erythrocyte quantity in blood, and subsequently, improving aerobic performance.

exercise gif

Originally posted by icefitness

The skin

Cobalt can enter the body via various ways: one way is by the skin. This organ is susceptible to environmental pollution, especially in workers who are employed in heavy industry. 

When cobalt ions from different metal objects repeatedly come into contact with skin, these cobalt ions then diffuse through the skin, causing allergic and irritant reactions.

allergic gif

Originally posted by showcaseshirley17

Important raw material for electric transport

Cobalt is also a critical raw material for electric transport. It is used in the production of the most common types of lithum-ion batteries, thus, powering the current boom in electric vehicles. 

The electric vehicle industry has the potential to grow from 3.2 million in 2017 to around 130 million in 2030, seeing the demand for cobalt increase almost threefold within the next decade.

electric vehicle charging

As the EU continues to develop the battery industry, it is becoming a priority for manufacturing industries to secure adequate cobalt supplies. The electric vehicle boom means cobalt will increase in demand in the EU as well as globally; further projects to monitoring the supply-and-demand situation will be announced.


Materials

2019 has been declared by UNESCO as the Year of the Periodic Table. To celebrate, we are releasing a series of blogs about our favourite elements and their importance to the chemical industry. Today, we investigate the uses of platinum.

Early uses

Around 1200BC, archaeologists discovered traces of platinum in gold in ancient Egyptian burials. 

However, the extent of Egyptians’ knowledge of the metal remains unknown, which suggests that Egyptians might have been unaware that platinum existed in the gold.

 Ancient Egyptian

The Ancient Egyptians made elaborate masks for royals to wear once they were mummified.

Platinum was also used by South Americans with dates going back 2000 years. Burial goods show that in the pacific coast of South America, people were able to work platinum, producing artifacts of a white gold-platinum alloy. 

Archaeologists link the South American tradition of platinum-working with the La Tolita Culture. Archaeological sites show the highly artistic nature of this culture, with the artifacts characterised by gold and platinum jewellery, and anthropomorphic masks symbolising the hierarchical and ritualistic society.

 nthropomorphic mask

What are its properties?

Platinum is a silvery white metal, also known as ‘white gold’. It is extremely resistant to tarnishing and corrosion and it is one of the least reactive metals, unaffected by water and air, which means it will not oxidise with air. 

It is also very soft and malleable, and therefore can be shaped easily and due to its ductility, it can be easily stretched into wire.

 Platinum ring

Platinum is a member of group 10 of the periodic table. The group 10 metals have several uses including decorative purposes, electrical components, catalysts in a variety of chemical reactions and play an important role in biochemistry, particularly platinum compounds which have widely been used as anticancer drugs. 

Additionally, platinum’s tarnish resistance characteristics makes it one the most well-suited elements for making jewelry.


Biological role

 tablets

Platinum bonds are often used as a form of medicine in treatments for cancer. However, the health effects of platinum are dependent on the kinds of bonds that are formed, levels of exposure, and the immunity of the individual.

In 1844, Michele Peyrone, an Italian chemist, discovered the anti-neo plastic properties (apparently prohibiting the development of tumours) and later in 1971, the first human cancer patient was treated with drugs containing platinum.

sheldon gif

Originally posted by keep-calm-and-allons-y-whovians

Today, approximately 50% of patient are treated using medicine which includes the rare metal. Scientists will look further into all the ways platinum drugs affect biology, and how to design better platinum drugs in the future. 


Materials

2019 has been declared by UNESCO as the Year of the Periodic Table. To celebrate, we are releasing a series of blogs about our favourite elements and their importance to the chemical industry. Today we look at copper and some of its popular uses.


A brief history

 copper

Copper was one of the first metals ever extracted and used by humans. According to the US Geological Survey, copper ranks as the third most consumed industrial metal in the world, dating back to around 5000BC.

Around 5500BC, early ancestors discovered the malleable properties of copper, and discovered they could be fashioned into tools and weapons – a discovery that allowed humans to emerge out of the stone age and drift into the age of metals.

 volcanic rocks

Volcanic rocks in Tenerife, Spain.

Approximately two-thirds of the Earth’s copper is found in volcanic rocks, while approximately one-quarter occurs in sedimentary rocks. 

Th metal is malleable, meaning it can conduct heat and electricity, making copper an extremely useful industrial metal and is used to make electronics, cables and wiring.


What is it used for?

 copper tools

Since 4500BC humans have made and manufactured items from copper. Copper is used mostly as a pure metal, but its strength and hardness can be adjusted by adding tin to create a copper alloy known as bronze. 

In the 1700s, pennies were made from pure copper; in the 1800s they were made from bronze; and today, pennies consist of approximately 97.5% zinc and 2.5% copper.

 

Copper is utilised for a variety of industrial purposes. In addition to copper’s good thermal and electric conductivity, copper now plays an important role in renewable energy systems. 

As copper is an excellent conductor of heat and electricity, power systems use copper to generate and transmit energy with high efficiency and minimal environmental impacts.


Antimicrobial properties

 E Coli cultures on a Petri dish

E. Coli cultures on a Petri dish.

Copper plays an important role as an anti-bacterial material. Copper alloy surfaces have properties which are set out to destroy a wide range of microorganisms.

Recent studies have shown that copper alloy surfaces kill over 99.9% of E.coli microbes within two hours. In the interest of public health, especially in healthcare environments, studies led by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) have listed 274 different copper alloys as certified antimicrobial materials, making copper the first solid surfaced material to have been registered by the EPA.

bye gif

Originally posted by nursegif

Copper has always maintained an important role in modern society with a vast list of extensive uses. With further development of renewable energy systems and electric vehicles, we will likely see an ongoing increase in demand for copper.