Soil is a very precious asset whether it be in your garden or an allotment. Soil has physical and chemical properties that support its biological life. Like any asset understanding its properties is fundamental for its effective use and conservation.
Soils will contain, depending on their origin four constituents: sand, clay, silt and organic matter. Mineral soils, those derived by the weathering of rocks contain varying proportions of all four. But their organic matter content will be less than 5 percent. Above that figure and the soil is classed as organic and is derived from the deposition of decaying plants under very wet conditions forming bogs.
Essentially this anaerobic deposition produces peat which if drained yields highly fertile soils such as the Fenlands of East Anglia. Peat’s disadvantage is oxidation, steadily the organic matter breaks down, releases carbon dioxide and is lost revealing the subsoil which is probably a layer of clay.
Cracked clay soil
Mineral soils with a high sand content are free draining, warm quickly in spring and are ‘light’ land. This latter term originates from the small number of horses required for their cultivation. Consequently, sandy soils encourage early spring growth and the first crops. Their disadvantage is limited water retention and hence crops need regular watering in warm weather.
Clay soils are water retentive to the extent that they will become waterlogged during rainy periods. They are ‘heavy’ soils meaning that large teams of horses were required for their cultivation. These soils produce main season crops, especially those which are deeply rooting such as maize. But in dry weather they crack open rupturing root systems and reducing yields.
Silt soils contain very fine particles and may have originated in geological time by sedimentation in lakes and river systems. They can be highly fertile and are particularly useful for high quality field vegetable and salad crops. Because of their preponderance of fine particles silt soils ‘cap’ easily in dry weather. The sealed surface is not easily penetrated by germinating seedlings causing erratic and patchy emergence.
Soil finger test
Soil composition can be determined by two very simple tests. A finger test will identify the relative content of sand, clay and silt. Roll a small sample of moist soil between your thumb and fingers and feel the sharpness of sand particles and the relative slipperiness of clay or the very fine almost imperceptible particles of silt. For a floatation test, place a small soil sample onto the top of a jam jar filled with water. Over 24 to 48 hours the particles will sediment with the heavier sand forming the lower layer with clay and silt deposited on top. Organic matter will float on the surface of the water.
Soil floatation test
2019 has been declared by UNESCO as the Year of the Periodic Table. To celebrate, we are releasing a series of blogs about our favourite elements and their importance to the chemical industry. Today’s blog focuses on zinc and its contribution towards a sustainable future.
Foods high in zinc: Evan Lorne
Zinc is a naturally occurring element, considered a ‘life saving commodity’ by the United Nations. As well as playing a fundamental role in the natural development of biological processes, it is also highly recyclable which means that once it has reached the end of its life cycle, it can be recycled, and returned to the cycle as a new source of raw material. Statistically, around 45% of zinc in Europe and in the United States is recovered and recycled once it has reached the end of its life cycle.
Circular and linear economy showing product life cycle: Petovarga
Circular economy is an economic model that focuses on waste reduction and ensuring a product that has reached its end cycle is not considered for disposal, but instead becomes used as a new source of raw material. Zinc fits this model; its lifecycle begins from mining and goes through a refining process to enable its use in society. Finally, it is recycled at the end of this process.
The production of zinc-coated steel mill: gyn9037
Zinc contributes to the planet in various ways:
1. Due to its recyclable nature, it lowers the demand for new raw material
2. As zinc provides a protective coating for steel, it extends the lifecycle of steel products
3. Coating steel reduces carbon dioxide emissions
As reported by the Swedish Environmental Protection Agency, zinc uses the lowest energy on a per unit weight and per unit volume basis, (with the exception of iron). Only a small amount of zinc is needed to conserve the energy of steel, and during electrolytic zinc production, only 7% of energy is used for mining and mineral processing.
Green technology: Petrmalinak
According to a new report published by The World Bank, ‘The Growing Role of Minerals and Metals for a Low-Carbon Future,’ a low carbon future and a rise in the use of green energy technologies will lead to an increased demand in a selected range of minerals and metals. These metals include aluminium, copper, lead, lithium, manganese, nickel, silver, steel, zinc and rare earth minerals. Hence, zinc will be one of the main metals to fill this demand.