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Science & Innovation

June 27th 2020 marked the fourth Micro-, Small and Medium-sized Enterprise (MSME) day, established by the International Council for Small Businesses (ICSB).

Along with online events, the ICSB published its annual report highlighting not only the importance of MSMEs as they relate to the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals but also calling for further political and regulatory support for the sector as the global economy looks to make a recovery.

 Concept of a green economy

Concept of a green economy 

Ahmed Osman, President of the ICSB, used the annual report to share his perspectives on the future for MSMEs in the post pandemic world and posed the question ‘What is the new normal for MSMEs?’  

‘There are six key factors every MSME or start-up needs to keep in mind post Covid-19,’ Osman stated, the first of these being financial assessment and security. Encouraging MSMEs to put in place a financial action plan, obtaining information about government relief packages and getting a clear picture of investor expectations, Osman said;  ‘Once this financial risk assessment and support ecosystem are in place, one can execute the plan. This may involve deciding on a potential pay cut, pull back on investments related to infrastructure or expansion, halting new recruitment etc…’

 Digital Business and Technology Concept

Digital Business and Technology Concept 

Having secured the financial footing the next factor was to re-evaluate the business plan in light of the new conditions. Osman stressed the importance of involving all stakeholders to come up with a mutually agreed set of new targets. The third factor to consider, according to Osman, was creating a ‘strong digital ecosystem.’ ‘If there is one thing that Covid-19 has taught businesses. It is the power of digital engagement. Even as an MSME, it helps to be present and active on digital media…Additionally, a digitally enabled internal ecosystem also needs to be in place that can accommodate remote working…without compromising data  security or productivity of employees.’

The fourth factor Osman highlighted was adoption of the fourth revolution for business. ‘…This is also time to leverage the new age technology innovations and adopt the fourth revolution for business. While most SMEs and MSMEs look at this as an ‘out of league’ investment, it is actually very simple and can be incorporated for a higher ROI in the long run. Be it automation, CRM, ERP, IoT, a well planned strategy to scale to technology-enabled, highly productive next generation business can be worked out with a two to three year plan,’ Osman said.

 Bulb future technology

Bulb future technology

Less reliance on physical space was the fifth factor Osman highlighted, anticipating a reversal in the trend that led to increasing the number of people in an office and home working becoming more normal.

The final factor Osman highlighted was the need to have a crisis management strategy in place. ‘It is vital to chalk up an effective crisis management plan that will take into consideration both immediate and long-term impact,’ he said.

Encouraging MSMEs to take stock, Osman asked ‘How did you help in the great pandemic? Quantify what you did for your employees, customers, community and country. Leverage the opportunity to build a better business, have credible solutions to the new major challenge and think globally act locally.’


Science & Innovation

2019 has been declared by UNESCO as the Year of the Periodic Table. To celebrate, we are releasing a series of blogs about our favourite elements and their importance to the chemical industry. Today’s blog focuses on zinc and its contribution towards a sustainable future.  

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Foods high in zinc: Evan Lorne

Zinc is a naturally occurring element, considered a ‘life saving commodity’ by the United Nations. As well as playing a fundamental role in the natural development of biological processes, it is also highly recyclable which means that once it has reached the end of its life cycle, it can be recycled, and returned to the cycle as a new source of raw material. Statistically, around 45% of zinc in Europe and in the United States is recovered and recycled once it has reached the end of its life cycle.

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Circular and linear economy showing product life cycle:  Petovarga 

Circular economy is an economic model that focuses on waste reduction and ensuring a product that has reached its end cycle is not considered for disposal, but instead becomes used as a new source of raw material. Zinc fits this model; its lifecycle begins from mining and goes through a refining process to enable its use in society. Finally, it is recycled at the end of this process.

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The production of zinc-coated steel mill: gyn9037

Zinc contributes to the planet in various ways:

1.  Due to its recyclable nature, it lowers the demand for new raw material

2.  As zinc provides a protective coating for steel, it extends the lifecycle of steel products

3.  Coating steel reduces carbon dioxide emissions

As reported by the Swedish Environmental Protection Agency, zinc uses the lowest energy on a per unit weight and per unit volume basis, (with the exception of iron). Only a small amount of zinc is needed to conserve the energy of steel, and during electrolytic zinc production, only 7% of energy is used for mining and mineral processing.

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Green technology:  Petrmalinak

According to a new report published by The World Bank, ‘The Growing Role of Minerals and Metals for a Low-Carbon Future,’ a low carbon future and a rise in the use of green energy technologies will lead to an increased demand in a selected range of minerals and metals. These metals include aluminium, copper, lead, lithium, manganese, nickel, silver, steel, zinc and rare earth minerals. Hence, zinc will be one of the main metals to fill this demand.

Science & Innovation

North Carolina State University researchers have created a new 3D printing ink which generates soft and flexible structures. These structures can be controlled with a magnetic field while floating on water and have the potential to be used in a variety of applications in the future.

3D printing technology is becoming increasingly common in research and industry, but its use is limited due to lack of availability of specialist inks that can be used to generate novel structures. In this study, scientists first made an ink from silicone microbeads, bound in liquid silicone and water. This mixture has a paste-like consistency, similar to household toothpaste, where it can be easily manipulated, but retains its shape and does not drip.

What is 3D Printing and how does it work? Video: Funk-e Studios

The ink was then fed into a 3D printer and used to create mesh patterns. The final structures are cured in an oven and contain embedded iron carbonyl particles, which allow the researchers to use magnetic fields to manipulate it.

Health & Wellbeing

The first perfumes designed by AI are slated for launch in mid-2019 in Brazil. Developed at IBM, in partnership with perfume company Symrise, the AI programme used drew upon a database of 1.7m different fragrance formulas, and used information on raw materials and the success of previously developed perfumes. It was also taught to identify which fragrances people found similar and dissimilar – getting training akin to an apprentice perfumer.

perfume

Called Philyra, after the Greek goddess of fragrance, the AI programme developed two new fragrances for Brazilian beauty company O Boticário. 

‘What she did was super innovative. She had a sweet warm background, but added cardamom-like Indian cuisine scents and a milk that came from the flavour department,’ says David Apel, Senior Perfumer with Symrise. ‘From 1.7m formulas, it is amazing for her to find something that hadn’t been done before.’

Using AI to create new fragrances. Video: IBM Research

In a demonstration at IBM Research in Zurich, Switzerland, computational researcher Richard Goodwin demonstrated how Philyra is able to scan 1,000 different formulations, and over 60 raw materials, and compare them with fragrances currently on the marketplace. It is possible to request a certain type of perfume and adjust its novelty.


Health & Wellbeing

Roughly 60% of the 12 million animal experiments in Europe each year involve mice. But despite their undoubted usefulness, mice haven’t been much help in getting successful drugs into patients with brain conditions such as autism, schizophrenia or Alzheimer’s disease. So too have researchers grown 2D human brain cells in a dish. However, human brain tissue comprises many cell types in complex 3D arrangements, necessary for true cell identity and function to emerge.

Researchers are hopeful that lab grown mini-brains – tiny 3D tissues resembling the early human brain – may offer a more promising approach. ‘We first published on them in 2013, but the number of brain organoid papers has since skyrocketed, with 300 just last year,’ says Madeline Lancaster at the Medical Research Council’s Laboratory of Molecular Biology lab in Cambridge, UK.

 pippette and petri dish

Lancaster was the first to grow mini-brains – or brain organoids – as a postdoc in the lab of Juergen Knoblich at the Institute of Molecular Biotechnology in Vienna, Austria. The miniature brains comprised parts of the cortex, hippocampus and even retinas, resembling a jumbled-up brain of a human foetus.

‘We were stunned by how similar the events in the organoids were to what happens in a human embryo,’ says Knoblich. To be clear, the brain tissue is not a downsized replicate. Lancaster compares the blobs of tissue to an aircraft disassembled and put back together, with the engine, cockpit and wings in the wrong place.

Growing mini brains to discover what makes us human | Madeline Lancaster. Video: TEDx Talks  

‘The plane wouldn’t fly, but you can study each of those components and learn about them. This is the same with brain organoids. They develop features similar to the human brain,’ she explains.


Energy

A 3D battery made using self-assembling polymers could allow devices like laptops and mobile phones to be charged much more rapidly.

Usually in an electronic device, the anode and cathode are on either side of a non-conducting separator. But a new battery design by Cornell University researchers in the US intertwines the components in a 3D spiral structure, with thousands of nanoscale pores filled with the elements necessary for energy storage and delivery.

image

Originally posted by novelty-gift-ideas

This type of ‘bottom-up’ self-assembly is attractive because it overcomes many of the existing limitations in 3D nanofabrication, enabling the rapid production of nanostructures at large scales.

In the Cornell design, the battery’s anode is made of gyroidal (spiral) thin films of carbon, generated by block copolymer self-assembly. They feature thousands of periodic pores around 40nm wide. The pores are coated with a 10 nm-thick separator layer, which is electronically insulating but ion-conducting. Some pores are filled with sulfur, which acts as the cathode and accepts electrons but doesn’t conduct electricity.

Adaptive battery can charge in seconds. Video: News Direct

‘This is potentially ground-breaking, if the process can be scaled up and the quality of the electrodes can be ensured,’ comments Yury Gogotsi, director of A.J. Drexel Nanomaterials Institute, Philadelphia, US. ‘But this is still an early-stage development, proof of concept. The main challenge is to ensure that no short-circuits occur in the structure.

Agrifood

The world’s largest agriculture companies have joined forces to invest in new and innovative technologies that will hopefully eradicate malaria by 2040. The ‘Zero by 40’ campaign was launched at the annual Commonwealth Heads of Government meeting held in London last week.

The programme has the support of the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation and the Innovative Vector Control Consortium, based in Liverpool, UK, as well as companies BASF, Bayer, and Syngenta – among others.

 Mosquitos 2

Mosquitos are known vectors of the malaria virus. Image: James Gathany/Centre for Disease Control

Malaria affects over 200 million people each year – most cases are found in Africa but the disease is still prevalent in South East Asia and in the Mediterranean. Although the number of cases has been slowly falling year-on-year, this progress is threatened by insecticide resistance.

It is estimated that four out of five malaria cases have been prevented through long-lasting insecticide-treated bed nets (LLINs) and indoor residual spraying (IRS) techniques. The campaign is a continued sign of commitment from the agriculture industry, with companies already having produced innovative solutions to tackle the global issue.

Both Syngenta and Bayer have introduced new IRS products – either in the final stages of development or already employed across Africa. BASF has developed a new generation mosquito net with an insecticide derived from crop use to deter resistant mosquitos.

 Insecticides used in agriculture

Insecticides used in agriculture are used as control mechanisms for the mosquito population.

‘Our industry collaboration, supported by our funders including the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation and the UK’s Department of International Development, is starting to bear fruit and is saving lives today,’ said Nick Hamon, CEO of IVCC.

‘But we still have a long way to go to achieve our ambition of ending the disease burden of malaria by 2040,’ Hamon said. ‘This new initiative will not only secure the current supply of solutions, but will pave the way for desperately needed new forms of chemistry and new vector control tools to reduce the disease burden of malaria which still affects millions of people.’


Agrifood

Currently one of the least digitised industries in the world, the agricultural sector is fast becoming a hub of innovation in robotics. One report suggests the agricultural robotics industry will be worth £8.5bn by 2027.

Feeding the increasing global population – set to hit 8bn by 2023 –  is a major concern in the sector, with farmers already stretched to capacity with current technology.

With this said, the European Commission – via Horizon 2020 – has launched a programme and fund to drive research and innovation in the area. Developments in precision agriculture, which uses data and technology for a more controlled approach to farming management, has been particularly encouraging.

But similar to other labour-intensive industries, such as manufacturing, robots could be used to relieve workers in difficult conditions, and there are many projects close to commercialisation.

vegetables gif

Originally posted by edible3d

Picking peppers

One such project is SWEEPER – a greenhouse harvesting tool that can detect when sweet peppers are ready to harvest through sensors. SWEEPER runs between the vines on a rail and uses GPS tracking to navigate through its environment.

Although focusing on sweet peppers for this research, the group say that the technology could be applied to other fruits and crops.

The EU-funded consortium in charge of the development of the SWEEPER robot is made up of six academic and industry partners from four countries: Belgium, Sweden, Israel and the Netherlands, where the research is based.

Greenhouses pose harsh working conditions during harvesting season, including excessive heat, humidity, and long hours.

 

The SWEEPER robot in action. Video: WUR Glastuinbouw

‘The reduction in the labour force has put major pressure on the competitiveness of the European greenhouse sector,’ said Jos Balendonck, project coordinator from Wageningen University & Research, the Netherlands.

‘We hope to develop the technology that will prevent greenhouse food production from migrating out of Europe due to the 40 % expected rise in labour costs over the coming decade.’

Currently testing the second version of the robot, the research group already envision adding improvements – from sensors that can detect vitamin content, sweetness levels and the sweet pepper’s expected shelf life to the ability to alert farmers when crop disease could hit their crops in advance.

A world first

Meanwhile, engineers at Harper Adams University in Shropshire, UK, and agriculture firm Precision Decisions have become the first group to harvest a crop completely autonomously.

The Hands Free Hectare project – funded by Innovate UK – modified existing farming machinery to incorporate open-source data that would allow the control systems to be located externally.

At the start of the season, an autonomous tractor sows the crops into the soil using GPS positioning, and sprays them periodically with pesticides throughout their growth. A separate rover takes soil samples to analyse nutrient content and to check pH levels are maintained.

When the crops begin to sprout from the ground a drone is used to monitor growth by taking images. Finally, a combine harvester controlled from outside of the field harvests the crops.

Kit Franklin, an Agricultural Engineering lecturer at the university, said: ‘As a team, we believe there is now no technological barrier to automated field agriculture. This project gives us the opportunity to prove this and change current public perception.’

 Hands Free Hectare

Image: Hands Free Hectare

Despite innovation in the area, farmers have been slow to embrace the new technology, partially due to the lack of high quality data available that would allow more flexibility in the sector. Others, including the wider public, worry that development will lead to job losses in the industry.

However, scientists say the jobs will still be there but farmers and agricultural workers will use their skills to control the autonomous systems from behind the scenes instead.

‘Automation will facilitate a sustainable system where multiple smaller, lighter machines will enter the field, minimising the level of compaction,’ said Franklin.

‘These small autonomous machines will in turn facilitate high resolution precision farming, where different areas of the field, and possibly even individual plants can be treated separately, optimising and potentially reducing inputs being used in field agriculture.’

Policy

In July 2017, the UK government announced plans to end the sale of all new petrol and diesel cars and vans by 2040, but there’s a long way for the electric vehicle market to go before that target can be reached – low-emission vehicle sales still account for just 0.5% of total car sales.

Last week, the European Commission announced a new Innovation Deal that could go some way to overcoming barriers to electric vehicle development and acceptance by consumers.

Entitled ‘From e-mobility to recycling: the vitreous loop of the electric vehicle’, it is designed to help innovators address regulatory obstacles to the recycling and re-use of propulsion batteries in second-life applications, such as energy storage.

The deal comprises a multi-disciplinary working group of partners across industry and government in France and the Netherlands. In France, Renault, Bouygues and the Ministries for the Ecological and Inclusive Transition and Economy and Finance; in the Netherlands, renewable energy technology company LomboXnet, the Provice of Utrecht, and the Ministries of Infrastructure and Water Management, Economic Affairs, and Climate Policy.

twitterpost

Carlos Moedas, EU Commissioner for Research, Science and Innovation, said, ‘The electric vehicle revolution is a testimony to how innovation generates growth and fundamentally changes society for the better. In order for Europe to stay in the lead of this innovation race, we need to work together with innovators and authorities to make sure our laws do not hamper innovation. This Innovation Deal will clarify the regulatory landscape in this area, and boost demand for electric vehicles.’

Robin Berg, founder of LomboXnet is one such innovator set on fundamentally changing society for the better. In Utrecht, the Netherlands, his company has set up a smart solar charging network that allows excess solar power harvested via rooftop photovoltaic panels to be stored in electric vehicle batteries – the energy can then be transferred between car and home as demand requires.

‘Enhancing the economic value of car batteries through vehicle-to-grid applications, second-life battery projects and smart solar charging of cars, creates huge business opportunities,’ Berg said.

‘The Smart Solar Charging consortium in Utrecht Region led by LomboXnet together with Renault seeks to increase these opportunities to spur the transition to a renewable energy system and a zero-emission mobility future. Europe is leading in these developments; this Innovation Deal offers a chance to further strengthen Europe’s leadership.’

Pure electric vehicle sales were down in the first two months of 2018 compared with the previous year – although sales of plug-in hybrid cars, which combine a conventional petrol or diesel engine with an electric motor that can be charged at an outlet or on the move, were up by 40% over the same period.

Materials

With an ever-increasing demand for data storage, the race is on to develop new materials that offer greater storage density. Researchers have identified a host of exotic materials that use new ways to pack ‘1’s and ‘0’s into ever-smaller spaces.

And, while many of them are still lab curiosities, they offer the potential to improve data storage density by 100 times or more.


Having a moment

 floppy disks

Data storage technology has moved quickly away from floppy disks (pictured) and CD-DOMs. Image: Pexels

The principle behind many storage media is to use magnetic ‘read’ and ‘write’ heads, an idea also exploited by many of these new technologies – albeit on a much smaller scale.

A good example is recent work from Manchester University, UK, where researchers have raised the temperature at which ‘single molecule magnets’ can be magnetised. Single-molecule magnets could have 100 times the data storage density of existing memory devices.

In theory, any molecular entity can be used to store data as reversing its polarity can switch it from a ‘1’ to a ‘0’. In this case, instead of reading and writing areas of a magnetic disk, the researchers have created single molecules that exhibit magnetic ‘hysteresis’ – a prerequisite for data storage.

 

Researchers discuss the circuit boards in development that negotiate Moore’s Law. Video: Chemistry at The University of Manchester

‘You need a molecule that has its magnetic moment in two directions,’ says Nick Chilton, Ramsay Memorial research fellow in the school of chemistry. ‘To realise this in a single molecule, you need very specific conditions.’

In addition to having a strong magnetic moment, the molecule needs a slow relaxation time – that is, the time it takes for the molecule to ‘flip’ naturally from a ‘1’ to a ‘0’.  ‘If this time is effectively indefinite, it would be useful for data storage,’ he says.

The key is that the molecule itself must have a magnetic moment. So, while a bulk substance such as iron oxide is ‘magnetic’, individual iron oxide particles are not.

 binary digit

A binary digit, or bit, is the smallest unit of data in computing. The system is used in nearly all modern computers and technology. Image: Pixabay

Chilton and his colleagues have identified and synthesised a single-molecule magnet – a dysprosium atom, sandwiched between two cyclopentadienyl rings – that can be magnetised at 60K. This is 46K higher than any previous single-molecule magnet – and only 17K below the temperature of liquid nitrogen.

Being able to work with liquid nitrogen – rather than liquid helium – would bring the cost of a storage device down dramatically, says Chilton. To do this, the researchers must now model and make new structures that will work at 77K or higher.


Bit player

Skyrmions may sound like a new adversary for Doctor Who, but they are actually another swirl-like magnetic entity that could be used to represent a bit of digital data.

doctor who gif

Originally posted by doctorwho247

Scientists at the Max Born Institute (MBI), Germany – in collaboration with colleagues from Massachusetts Institute of Technology, US – have devised a way to generate skyrmions in a controllable way, by building a ‘racetrack’ nanowire memory device that might in future be incorporated into a conventional memory chip.

‘Skyrmions can be conceived as particles – because that’s how they act,’ says Bastian Pfau, a postdoctoral researcher at MBI, as they are generated using a current pulse.

‘Earlier research put a lot of current pulses through a racetrack and created a skyrmion randomly,’ he says. ‘We’ve created them in a controlled and integrated way: they’re created on the racetrack exactly where you want them.’

 Max Born Institute

This racetrack memory device could be incorporated into standard memory chips, say researchers at the Max Born Institute. Credit: Grafix 

In fact, skyrmions can be both created and moved using current pulses – but the pulse for creating them is slightly stronger than the one that moves them. The advantage of using a current pulse is that it requires no moving parts.

The resulting racetrack is a three-layer nanowire about 20nm thick – a structure that will hold around 100 skyrmions along a one-micron length of wire.

While the current research is done ‘in the plane’ with the nanowires held horizontally, Pfau says that in the future, wires could be stacked vertically in an array to boost storage capacity. ‘This would increase the storage density by 100. But this is in the future and nobody has made a strip line that’s vertical yet.’

Could magnetic skyrmions hold the answer to better data storage? Video: Durham University

‘The whole function depends on how you create the multi-layer,’ he says. To stand any chance of being commercialised, which might take six or eight years, Pfau says that new materials will be needed.

However, he is confident this will happen – and that the technology can be merged with ‘conventional’ electronic devices.

Energy

 Tesla

Tesla is at the forefront of industrial battery technology research. 

Electric cars are accelerating commercially. General Motors has already sold 12,000 models of its Chevrolet Bolt and Daimler announced in September 2017 that it is to invest $1bn to produce electric cars in the US, with Investment bank ING, meanwhile, predicts that European cars will go fully electric by 2035.

‘Batteries are a global industry worth tens of billions of dollars, but over the next 10 to 20 years it will probably grow to many hundreds of billions per year,’ says Gregory Offer, battery researcher at Imperial College London. ‘There is an opportunity now to invest in an industry, so that when it grows exponentially you can capture value and create economic growth.’

road gif

Originally posted by knowing

The big opportunity for technology disruption lies in extending battery lifetime, says Offer, whose team at Imperial takes market-ready or prototype battery devices into their lab to model the physics and chemistry going on inside, and then figures out how to improve them.

Lithium batteries, the battery technology of choice, are built from layers, each connected to a current connector and theoretically generating equivalent power, which flows out through the terminals. However, improvements in design of packs can lead to better performance and slower degradation.

 Lithium batteries

Lithium batteries need to be adapted for electric vehicle use. Image: Public Domain Pictures

For many electric vehicles, cooling plates are placed on each side of the battery cell, but the middle layers get hotter and fatigue faster. Offer’s group cooled the cell terminals instead, because they are connected to every layer. ‘You want the battery operating warmish, not too hot and not too cold,’ he says.

‘Keeping the temperature like that, we could get more energy out and extend the lifetime three-fold.’ If the expensive Li ion batteries in electric cars can outlive the car, he says their resale value will go up and dramatically alter the economic calculation when purchasing the car. ‘If we can get costs down, we will see more electric vehicles, and reduced emissions and improved air quality,’ Offer says.


Alternatives to lithium ion

Battery systems management and thermal regulation will allow current lithium batteries to be continually improved, but there are fundamental limits to this technology. ‘Lithium ion has a good ten years of improvements ahead,’ Offer predicts. ‘At that point we will hit a plateau and we are going to need technologies like lithium (Li) sulfur.’

 

Will Batteries Power The World? | The Limits Of Lithium-ion. Video:  minutephysics

Li sulfur has a theoretical energy density five times higher than Li ion. In September 2017, US space agency NASA said it will work with Oxis Energy in Oxford, UK, to evaluate its Li sulfur cells for applications where weight is crucial, such as drones, high-altitude aircraft and planetary missions.

However, Li sulfur is not the only challenger to Li ion. Toyota is working to develop solid-state batteries, which use solids like ceramics as the electrolyte. ‘They are based around a class of material that can conduct ions at room temperature as a solid,’ Offer explains. ‘The advantage is that you can then use metallic lithium as the anode. This means there is less parasitic mass, increasing energy density.’


Futuristic chemistries

 BMWs electric cars

The carbon-fiber structure and Li ion battery motor of one of BMW’s electric cars. Image: Mario Roberto Duran Ortiz

For electric cars, the ultimate technology in terms of energy density is rechargeable metal-air batteries. These work by oxidising metals such as lithium, zinc or aluminium with oxygen from the air. ‘Making a rechargeable air breathing electrode is really hard,’ warns Offer. ‘To get the metal to give up the oxygen over and over again, it’s difficult.’ 

Development in the area looks promising, with the UK nurturing battery-focused SMEs and forward-thinking research groups in universities. The latest investment plan envisages support that links across research, innovation and scale-up, as championed by Mark Walport, the government’s Chief Scientific Advisor.

The Faraday Challenge – part of the Industrial Strategy Challenge Fund. Video: Innovate UK  

Introducing a programme to directly tackle this challenge ‘would drive improved efficiency of translation of UK science excellence into desirable economic outcomes; would leverage significant industrial investment in the form of a “deal” with industry; and would send a strong investment signal globally,’ says Walport.

Science & Innovation

The second annual Huxley Summit, run by the British Science Association, aimed to explore The will of the people? Science and innovation in a post-truth world. The leadership event invites delegates from political, academic, and corporate backgrounds to debate key scientific themes that present social challenges for the 21st Century.

A running debate throughout the day was the use of big data and the rise of artificial intelligence, with a panel of experts ready to discuss the problems of the present and the immediate future.


Protect your privacy

image

Online shopping is one of the ways consumers share their personal information. Image: Shutterstock

Big data is a topic that the public engages with every day, sometimes without knowing it. Each time you buy some new shoes, even book an appointment at the GP online, you are sharing data.

Banks can now reportedly predict when a couple is about to get divorced, based on how much a husband lowers his wife’s credit limit in the months leading to the split, said Pippa Malmgren, founder of H Robotics.

image

Originally posted by hollywoodmarcia

While a funny anecdote, facts like this are part of ongoing concerns over the ethics of data use. Should artificial intelligence be programmed to find facts like these if a person isn’t willing for their data to be used in this way?

The lack of regulation of big data and understanding of the importance of our personal information means data can sometimes be misused. ‘PayPal’s data agreement is 36,000 words. All of Hamlet is 30,000. So the quick click we do to accept T&C’s makes all of us liars,’ said Richard Thomas, who was the UK’s first Information Commissioner, from 2002-09.


Data breach

Chi Onwurah speaking at the 2017 Huxley Summit. Video: British Science Association

There are arguments that we are too late in the game when implementing data regulations, said the panel. After years of sharing data, it is only now, after several major controversies, that the government is seriously considering penalties for companies that do not inform customers about data breaches.

Uber’s recent infamous coverup and the security breach of all 3 billion Yahoo accounts are just two well-known examples. Companies should no doubt be responsible for informing their customers when they have been hacked, agreed the panel, but are they liable for the breach itself? These are the questions that need to be explored immediately, said Chi Onwurah, Shadow Science Minister.

image

The Uber hack reportedly affected 57,000 customers and drivers. Image: Wikimedia Commons 

So, ‘how do we deal with the politics of data?’ said Azeem Azhar, a strategist and analyst known for his technology newsletter Exponential View. ‘And how do we make sure that these automated systems facilitate to build a world that we want from the data we’ve given it, not merely reinforce the world that we have?’


A better world

One of the great advantages of data sharing will be in healthcare, said Azhar. It has been reported that the average human body contains nearly 150tr GB of information – the equivalent of 75bn 16GB iPads.

How big data could transform the healthcare industry. Video: HuffPost

With greater access to this huge data resource, healthcare experts could develop systems that can accurately predict the occurrence of disease and revolutionise treatments for patients. The NHS already has a running data management hub – a collaborate effort funded by the National Institute for Health Research, among others – that researchers and staff use to access secure data for R&D.

While a costly and time-consuming task today, it is these breakthroughs that will make the difference in the societies of the future.

Careers

The second annual Huxley Summit, run by the British Science Association, aimed to explore The will of the people? Science and innovation in a post-truth world. The leadership event invites delegates from political, academic, and corporate backgrounds to debate key scientific themes that present social challenges for the 21st Century.

A running debate throughout the day was the use of big data and the rise of artificial intelligence, with a panel of experts ready to discuss the problems of the present and the immediate future.


Protect your privacy

 Online shopping

Online shopping is one of the ways consumers share their personal information. Image: Shutterstock

Big data is a topic that the public engages with every day, sometimes without knowing it. Each time you buy some new shoes, even book an appointment at the GP online, you are sharing data.

Banks can now reportedly predict when a couple is about to get divorced, based on how much a husband lowers his wife’s credit limit in the months leading to the split, said Pippa Malmgren, founder of H Robotics.

phone call gif

Originally posted by hollywoodmarcia

While a funny anecdote, facts like this are part of ongoing concerns over the ethics of data use. Should artificial intelligence be programmed to find facts like these if a person isn’t willing for their data to be used in this way?

The lack of regulation of big data and understanding of the importance of our personal information means data can sometimes be misused. ‘PayPal’s data agreement is 36,000 words. All of Hamlet is 30,000. So the quick click we do to accept T&C’s makes all of us liars,’ said Richard Thomas, who was the UK’s first Information Commissioner, from 2002-09.


Data breach

Chi Onwurah speaking at the 2017 Huxley Summit. Video: British Science Association

There are arguments that we are too late in the game when implementing data regulations, said the panel. After years of sharing data, it is only now, after several major controversies, that the government is seriously considering penalties for companies that do not inform customers about data breaches.

Uber’s recent infamous coverup and the security breach of all 3 billion Yahoo accounts are just two well-known examples. Companies should no doubt be responsible for informing their customers when they have been hacked, agreed the panel, but are they liable for the breach itself? These are the questions that need to be explored immediately, said Chi Onwurah, Shadow Science Minister.

 The Uber hack

The Uber hack reportedly affected 57,000 customers and drivers. Image: Wikimedia Commons 

So, ‘how do we deal with the politics of data?’ said Azeem Azhar, a strategist and analyst known for his technology newsletter Exponential View. ‘And how do we make sure that these automated systems facilitate to build a world that we want from the data we’ve given it, not merely reinforce the world that we have?’


A better world

One of the great advantages of data sharing will be in healthcare, said Azhar. It has been reported that the average human body contains nearly 150tr GB of information – the equivalent of 75bn 16GB iPads.

How big data could transform the healthcare industry. Video: HuffPost

With greater access to this huge data resource, healthcare experts could develop systems that can accurately predict the occurrence of disease and revolutionise treatments for patients. The NHS already has a running data management hub – a collaborate effort funded by the National Institute for Health Research, among others – that researchers and staff use to access secure data for R&D.

While a costly and time-consuming task today, it is these breakthroughs that will make the difference in the societies of the future.

Science & Innovation

It has been a year since Prime Minister Theresa May announced the launch of the Industrial Strategy Challenge Fund at CBI’s annual conference. At the time, May said the fund would ‘help to address Britain’s historic weakness on commercialisation and turning our world-leading research into long-term success’.

Since then, Innovate UK has worked closely with the government and research councils to identify the great innovation challenges the UK faces.

‘Innovate UK have been in this right from the very beginning,’ said Ruth McKernan, Chief Executive of Innovate UK, speaking at Innovate 2017. McKernan explained that the organisation has held several engagement events to find out what ‘industry and researchers see as the challenges of the future and where economic growth can be developed in the UK’.

city gif

Originally posted by juliendouvier

The first three challenges sponsored by the Industrial Strategy Challenge Fund were announced in April this year: The Faraday challenge, medicines manufacturing, and robotics and autonomous systems.

Andrew Tyrer, Interim Director of Robotics and Autonomous Systems is now responsible for the £69m investment into research on AI in extreme conditions.

Research projects in this cohort include robotics in deep mining, space exploration, and off-shore energy. ‘One of the challenges is that you cannot put people in these environments,’ he said.

 Space

Space is just one of the dangerous environments being researched in robotics projects. Image: NASA

However, the UK does not currently have the research capacity to access the global market, Tyrer explained. For example, he said ‘the nuclear decommissioning market in five years will be at £150bn a year in Europe alone’ – a market the UK is currently struggling to make an impact.

‘The programme is about taking academic and business excellence, linking those value chains together, and building those industries,’ Tyrer said.

On the other end of the spectrum, is the Faraday Challenge – a ‘commitment’ to research into the battery development of driverless cars and an area of research the UK has already seen success in – headed by Jacqui Murray and Kathryn Magnay.

 petrol and diesel vehicles

The UK have pledged to have all petrol and diesel vehicles off roads by 2040. Image: Wikimedia Commons

‘Automotive has been a real success story in the UK in the last 10 years,’ said Murray, with the UK reaching ‘world-class’ in productivity levels.

However, there are ways the UK needs to improve, said Magnay. ‘In the UK we have a huge gap between the research that we do and how you scale that up in the manufacturing process,’ she said.

This is the inspiration for the upcoming £65m Faraday Battery Institute, which will serve as a hub for universities, as well as other academic institutions and industry partners, to further their science. Magnay said that Innovate UK wants to ‘provide a facility that companies and researchers can go to and take their ideas to trial them at scale’.

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Originally posted by science

Will smart energy solutions be the next challenge?

Further challenges under the Industrial Strategy Challenge Fund are currently unknown, although there are rumours of an early 2018 announcement. Which challenge will be next?

Science & Innovation

The Mary Rose is a maritime archaeologist’s dream – a Tudor time capsule containing not only the structure of the naval warship itself, but more than 26,000 artefacts, providing invaluable historic insight. Raised in 1982 – 11 years after its discovery in the Solent – restoring and conserving the wreck and its many treasures required not only countless hours of work, but many ingenious scientific solutions


1. Pond snails helped preserve the timbers

 Pond snails

 Image: coniferconifer 

To prevent the growth of fungi and microbes on the wooden frame, the Mary Rose restoration team used common pond snails, which ate the wood-degrading organisms but left the wood untouched – as well as employing more commonly known methods, such as low-temperature storage and chemical preservation.


2. Its water was replaced with polyethylene glycol

 A technician services the spraying system

A technician services the spraying system. Image: The Mary Rose Trust

To prevent the wood from warping, cracking and shrinking by up to 50% as the water evaporated, it was sprayed regularly with filtered, recycled water. In 1994, the conservation team began to gradually replace the water in the cellular structure of the wood with polyethylene glycol (PEG). A low-molecular-weight PEG was used for the first nine years, before seven years of spraying with a higher weight PEG to strengthen the outer layer. The remains were then carefully air dried – a process that was completed in 2016.


3. Crew members brought to life with virtual 3D reconstructions

 3D virtual models

3D virtual models of the crew and artefacts have provided a deeper look at Tudor history. Image: Pixabay

Mary Rose researchers used 3D technology to create virtual representations of crew members, clothing, and tools, to encourage scientists worldwide to participate in the project. Models have provided the opportunity to investigate the lifestyles led by the Tudors.


4.  Intact cannons were found

 Bronze and iron cannons

Bronze and iron cannons found on the Mary Rose were preserved using different methods. Pictured are a bronze (front) and iron (back) cannon. Image: Wikimedia Commons

Gunpowder and heavy artillery became increasingly used in infantry and on ships around the time that the Mary Rose was built, so many of the cannons and guns found on board the ship were made from metals such as iron and bronze. These metals are difficult to preserve after submersion in fresh water. Bronze cannons were lightly bathed in a sodium sesquicarbonate solution, and iron preserved using hydrogen reduction, to prevent oxidation, which can lead to the corrosion of these artefacts.

Divers who have discovered around 60 shipwrecks in the Black Sea face a similar problem – perfectly preserved from the unusual anoxic conditions of the water – leading them to decide to study objects using 3D printing instead of bringing the ships ashore.


5. Part of the Mary Rose has been to space

 The space shuttle

The space shuttle Endeavour orbits the Earth. Image: Public Domain Pictures

For the shuttle Endeavour’s final trip to space in 2011, astronauts elected to take with them a parrel ball ­– used in sailing rigs – from the Mary Rose, as part of a long tradition of travelling in space with commemorative items. The shuttle took off from Kennedy Space Centre for the International Space Station on 16 May 2011. The artefact spent a total of 17 days in space, after an extended period of decontamination in preparation to make it suitable for space travel.


Interested in the Mary Rose? Why not register to attend Mary Rose - From Seabed to Showcase, the Making of a British Icon – our free Public Evening lecture with Helen Bonser-Wilton, Chief Executive of the Mary Rose Trust, in London on 25 November.