In November 2020, the UK is set to host the major UN Climate Change summit; COP26. This will be the most important climate summit since COP21 where the Paris Agreement was agreed. At this summit, countries, for the first time, can upgrade their emission targets through to 20301. In the UK, current legislation commits government to reduce greenhouse gas emissions by at least 100% of 1990 levels by 2050, under the Climate Change Act 2008 (2050 Target Amendment)2.
Hydrogen has been recognised as a low-carbon fuel which could be utilised in large-scale decarbonisation to reach ambitious emission targets. Upon combustion with air, hydrogen releases water and zero carbon dioxide unlike alternative heavy emitting fuels. The potential applications of hydrogen span across an array of heavy emitting sectors. The focus of this blog is to highlight some of these applications, and on-going initiatives, across the following three sectors: Industry, Transport and Domestic.
Please click (here3) to access our previous SCI Energy Group blog centred around UK CO2 emissions.
Figure 1: climate change activists
Did you know that small-scale hydrogen boilers already exist?4
Through equipment modification, it is technically feasible to use clean hydrogen fuel across many industrial sectors such as: food and drink, chemical, paper and glass.
Whilst this conversion may incur significant costs and face technical challenges, it is thought that hydrogen-fuelled equipment such as furnaces, boilers, ovens and kilns may be commercially available from the mid-2020’s4.
Figure 2: gas hydrogen peroxide boiler line vector icon
Did you know that using a gas hob can emit up to or greater than 71 kg of CO2 per year?5
Hydrogen could be supplied fully or as a blend with natural gas to our homes in order to minimise greenhouse gas emissions associated with the combustion of natural gas.
As part of the HyDeploy initiative, Keele University, which has its own private gas network, have been receiving blended hydrogen as part of a trial study with no difference noticed compared to normal gas supply6.
Other initiatives such as Hydrogen 1007 and HyDeploy8 are testing the feasibility of delivering 100% hydrogen to homes and commercial properties.
Figure 3: gas burners
Did you know that, based on an average driving distance of approximately 11,500 miles per annum, an average vehicle will emit approximately 4.6 tonnes of CO2 per year?9
In the transport sector, hydrogen fuel can be utilised in fuel cells, which convert hydrogen and oxygen into water and electricity.
Hydrogen fuel cell vehicles are already commercially available in the UK. However, currently, form only a small percentage of Ultra Low Emission Vehicle (ULEV) uptake10.
Niche applications of hydrogen within the transport sector are expected to show greater potential for hydrogen such as buses and trains. Hydrogen powered buses are already operational in certain parts of the UK and hydrogen trains are predicted to run on British railways from as early as 202211.
Figure 4: h2 combustion engine for emission free ecofriendly transport
This blog gives only a brief introduction to the many applications of hydrogen and its decarbonisation potential. The purpose of which, is to highlight that hydrogen, amongst other low-carbon fuels and technologies, can play an important role in the UK’s transition to net-zero emissions.
Stay tuned for further SCI Energy Group blogs which will continue to highlight alternative low-carbon technologies and their potential to decarbonise.
Links to References:
The concept of a hydrogen economy is not new to anyone involved or familiar with the energy sector. Until the 1970s, hydrogen was a well-established source of energy in the UK, making up 50% of gas used. For several reasons, the sector moved on, and a recent renewed interest into the advantages of hydrogen has put the gas at the forefront in the search for green energy.
Confidence behind the viability of hydrogen was confirmed last October when the government announced a £20m Hydrogen Supply programme that aims to lower the price of low carbon hydrogen to encourage its use in industry, power, buildings, and transport.
Hydrogen - the Fuel of the Future? Video: Real Engineering
‘In a way, hydrogen is more relevant than ever, because in the past hydrogen was linked with transportation,’ UCL fuel cell researcher Professor Dan Brett explained to The Engineer. ‘But now with the huge uptake of renewables and the need for grid-scale energy storage to stabilise the energy system, hydrogen can have a real role to play, and what’s interesting about that […] is that there’s a number of things you can do with it.
‘You can turn it back into electricity, you can put it into vehicles or you can do a power-to-gas arrangement where you pump it into the gas grid.’
Building roads with wastes can deliver a heap of performance as well as environmental benefits – so long as they don’t become a dumping ground for discarded products.
With an estimated value of around €16 trillion, Europe’s road network is its ‘most valuable asset’, according to the European Asphalt Pavement Association (EAPA). It’s also built on what many of us might consider a mountain of rubble.
‘Over the years, almost every conceivable waste material has been put into roads,’ said Fred Parrett, speaking at an SCI-organised event at a University College London, UK in March 2018. The list includes everything from crushed glass and incinerator ash to cellulose fibres and crumb rubber from end-of-life tyres – or even discarded plastic wastes.
But while using wastes in asphalt can potentially deliver big environmental and performance benefits, road experts warn that is not the best option for all wastes. In the UK, a recent survey by the Asphalt Industry Alliance revealed that the length of roads in England and Wales that could fail if not maintained in the next 12 months would stretch almost around the world.
Road cracks form when asphalt fatigues and the road loses its tensile strength. Image: MaxPixel
Roads start to deteriorate when the bitumen ‘glue’ that binds the aggregates together becomes harder and more brittle over time, causing potholes and cracks start to appear – a process accelerated by solar UV, oxygen, heat and cold, and particularly the freeze-thawing of water.
Bitumen additives or ‘modifiers’ help to slow this process down, but most of the traditional modifiers are expensive and derived from non-renewable fossil fuels. Bitumen substitutes made from end-of-life tyres and plastics wastes should potentially offer a cheaper, more sustainable option – but only if they improve rather than impair performance.