Introduction

In November 2020, the UK is set to host the major UN Climate Change summit; COP26. This will be the most important climate summit since COP21 where the Paris Agreement was agreed. At this summit, countries, for the first time, can upgrade their emission targets through to 20301. In the UK, current legislation commits government to reduce greenhouse gas emissions by at least 100% of 1990 levels by 2050, under the Climate Change Act 2008 (2050 Target Amendment)2.

Hydrogen has been recognised as a low-carbon fuel which could be utilised in large-scale decarbonisation to reach ambitious emission targets. Upon combustion with air, hydrogen releases water and zero carbon dioxide unlike alternative heavy emitting fuels. The potential applications of hydrogen span across an array of heavy emitting sectors. The focus of this blog is to highlight some of these applications, and on-going initiatives, across the following three sectors: Industry, Transport and Domestic.

Please click (here3) to access our previous SCI Energy Group blog centred around UK COemissions.

 climate change activists

Figure 1: climate change activists 

Industry

Did you know that small-scale hydrogen boilers already exist?4

Through equipment modification, it is technically feasible to use clean hydrogen fuel across many industrial sectors such as: food and drink, chemical, paper and glass.

Whilst this conversion may incur significant costs and face technical challenges, it is thought that hydrogen-fuelled equipment such as furnaces, boilers, ovens and kilns may be commercially available from the mid-2020’s4.

 gas hydrogen peroxide boiler line vector icon

Figure 2:  gas hydrogen peroxide boiler line vector icon

Domestic

Did you know that using a gas hob can emit up to or greater than 71 kg of COper year?5

Hydrogen could be supplied fully or as a blend with natural gas to our homes in order to minimise greenhouse gas emissions associated with the combustion of natural gas.

As part of the HyDeploy initiative, Keele University, which has its own private gas network, have been receiving blended hydrogen as part of a trial study with no difference noticed compared to normal gas supply6.

Other initiatives such as Hydrogen 1007 and HyDeployare testing the feasibility of delivering 100% hydrogen to homes and commercial properties.

 gas burners

Figure 3: gas burners

Transport

Did you know that, based on an average driving distance of approximately 11,500 miles per annum, an average vehicle will emit approximately 4.6 tonnes of COper year?9

In the transport sector, hydrogen fuel can be utilised in fuel cells, which convert hydrogen and oxygen into water and electricity.

Hydrogen fuel cell vehicles are already commercially available in the UK. However, currently, form only a small percentage of Ultra Low Emission Vehicle (ULEV) uptake10.

Niche applications of hydrogen within the transport sector are expected to show greater potential for hydrogen such as buses and trains. Hydrogen powered buses are already operational in certain parts of the UK and hydrogen trains are predicted to run on British railways from as early as 202211.

 h2 combustion engine

Figure 4:  h2 combustion engine for emission free ecofriendly transport

Summary

This blog gives only a brief introduction to the many applications of hydrogen and its decarbonisation potential. The purpose of which, is to highlight that hydrogen, amongst other low-carbon fuels and technologies, can play an important role in the UK’s transition to net-zero emissions.

Stay tuned for further SCI Energy Group blogs which will continue to highlight alternative low-carbon technologies and their potential to decarbonise.

Links to References:

1. https://eciu.net/briefings/international-perspectives/cop-26

2. https://www.legislation.gov.uk/ukdsi/2019/9780111187654

3. https://www.soci.org/blog/2019-08-09-Understanding-UK-Carbon-Dioxide-Emissions/

4. http://www.element-energy.co.uk/2020/01/hy4heat-wp6-has-shown-that-switching-industrial-heating-equipment-to-hydrogen-is-technically-feasible-with-large-potential-to-support-initiation-of-the-hydrogen-economy-in-the-2020s/

5. https://www.carbonfootprint.com/energyconsumption.html

6. https://hydeploy.co.uk/hydrogen/

7. https://sgn.co.uk/about-us/future-of-gas/hydrogen/hydrogen-100

8. https://www.hy4heat.info/

9. https://www.epa.gov/greenvehicles/greenhouse-gas-emissions-typical-passenger-vehicle

10. https://assets.publishing.service.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/794473/veh0202.ods

https://www.telegraph.co.uk/cars/news/hydrogen-fuel-cell-trains-run-british-railways-2022/