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Horticulture Group Newsletter - August 2013

tomato slice

7 Aug 2013

Last month saw the Society's Annual General Meeting, sadly the last meeting at which our current CEO, Joanne Lyall, will be officiating. Joanne leaves in September to return with her family to her native New Zealand. Our thanks go to her for all she has done for the Society during her all too brief tenure and we wish her and her family well for the future.

Last month we also visited Avon Bulbs and Tintinhull along with members of the Professional Horticulture Group South West. Avon Bulbs is a specialist bulb producer selling a wide range of bulbs many of which are multiplied on the nursery. Tintinhull is one of the smaller National Trust gardens. These visits will be reported in a later issue of the Newsletter.

Here we report on an earlier such visit to the Willows and Wetlands Centre in Somerset, one of the few remaining willow growers and one with an interesting sideline. Margaret Waddy also reports on the Cambridge Botanic Garden Open Day one of many held to celebrate the 2013 Fascination of Plants Day.

August is inevitably a quiet month but September gets off to an early start with the VI International Conference on Managing Quality in Food Chains to be held at Cranfield University on 2 - 5 September. The Group has been helping to promote this event and there are still places available for those wishing to attend. Details


Willow Growing

jonathan coate, photo by Peter GrimblyWillow is not a familiar crop to most people. In fact its culture is very localised and one of the few remaining areas where it is grown is on the Somerset levels. Jonathan Coate (Pictured right), whose family runs the Willows and Wetlands Centre at Stoke St Gregory explains that it owes its survival in this area to a battle between modern farming wanting to drain the land and environmentalists who want to preserve the wetlands as a wildlife habitat. In this instance the wetlands were not drained and so the historic culture of willow can continue.

The Somerset wetlands were originally shallow estuaries flooded by the tide but gradually, starting around 1200 AD, they have been reclaimed with dykes. Today much of the land is fully drained but a few areas such as those around Stoke St Gregory have been preserved as wetlands. This is vital for the species of willow grown for harvesting, the almond willow, Salix triandra, as this species likes its roots wet.

willow_stripping, photo by Peter GrimblyThe industry peaked in the 1920s when demand for willow baskets was at its highest but the advent of new materials has reduced demand and now only 450 acres remain in Somerset. The crop is grown in beds started by inserting 10in sticks of willow 6in into the soil at a density of 1750 per acre. These root readily and in the first year produce a rather ragged crop of no value. Thereafter the beds can be cropped for up to 30 years if cut by hand although mechanical harvest has reduced their useful life 15-20 years. When the beds are finished with they are grazed by cattle to kill the stools prior to replanting.

Cattle are also used to graze the beds in the spring until the last frosts have passed. The willow is then allowed to grow reaching heights of 3-9 ft by September with the high density of planting ensuring that the stems grow straight. Much of the crop is harvested after one year's growth but a proportion left for two years to provide stouter canes. These days the harvesting is done by machine although the wet summer and winter of 2012 had left some land too wet for the machinery so hand-harvesting was still underway.

Before it can be used for weaving the willow must be stripped of its bark. Jonathan demonstrated the traditional method of stripping one stem at a time by pulling it through a narrow metal slit. He then demonstrated their home grown stripping machines that can handle handfuls of cane. First the simple version (upper right) and then the latest high speed stripper (lower right). Much of this cane is used on-site to produce a wide variety of products from chairs and baskets to coffins.

An important secondary crop for the business is artists' charcoal. For this they use a specially selected strain of hybrid red willow. Once harvested, this is cut into short lengths and packed tightly into specially designed tins with sand being added to fill any remaining air spaces. The tins are then 'cooked' in a kiln for 10 hours at 500° C to create the charcoal. They produce 60% of the world's artist charcoal this way and sell it in 36 countries.

Peter Grimbly

Fascination of Plants at Cambridge University Botanic Garden

TS Eliot dubbed April 'the cruellest month, bringing lilacs out of the dead land'.

More cruel yet this year. In mid May, the lilacs only just hit their stride. Everything - bulbs, herbaceous perennials, shrubs and trees, had been delayed by a prolonged winter and a chilly spring.

Cambridg University Botanic Garden, photo by N H SavageSo much the better for this year's Festival of Plants at Cambridge University Botanic Garden (CUBG), pictured right by N H Savage. Late narcissi and tulips were still flowering, with early alliums hot on their heels. The peonies were at their best. In the northern half of the garden, the grass remained uncut, with a froth of cow parsley topping a heady brew of bluebells, cranesbills and other native wild flowers. The scent was overpowering.

The garden looked magnificent, and the staff had laid on a series of tours, events and experts to tell visitors more about all aspects of plant life, from the chemistry of herbs to the strategy of pollination. And specialist plant nurseries offered seductive species that garden centres might not stock.

I'm declaring an interest here. I've haunted the garden since 1980, and have seen huge changes in the way plants are presented and interpreted to the non-expert. I acquired a key to the gates (in limited supply to non members of the University) from Norman Villis, then Superintendent. He'd just laid out the Winter Garden, which preceded the Winter Walk at Anglesey Abbey, though smaller in scale. I'd let myself in on most Sundays, and got to know a range of plants, their labels hand-written by a calligrapher, that I'd never met before.

I'd tour the glasshouses, home not only to formal plant collections, but to a winter wonderland of conservatory plants. So, I've got to know the garden, over 30 years.

When I arrived for the Festival, I was invited to record my memories of visiting the CUBG by Hamida Farooq-Haynes. It was fun to review the changes I'd seen, for a CUBG archive.

Times have changed, and with them, the philosophy of a botanic garden; that it shouldn't serve only the botany students (a rapidly diminishing breed), but all of us. Visit any day, and you'll find a wealth of information. There are beds with bee-friendly species, with information explaining how flowers attract and sustain pollinators. There's a trail for plants that provide us with valuable chemicals - witness the prickly pear cactus Opuntia sp, shivering outside the glasshouses; a source of quercetin. There's 'Herbie Man', planted top to toe with 'virtuous' species.

The glasshouses now focus on collections of plants that belong together. One reflects the relationship between plant species at the tip of southern Africa with those in western Australia, which were once attached to one another. Your proteas and your banksias. Another houses plants from the Canary islands - giant Geranium spp, and other plants whose ancestors drifted in, established themselves and evolved to form new species.

The Festival of Plants Day offered tours that included the Systematic Beds, and the CUBG Trees, among others. I joined the Systematic Beds tour, led by Ron Mulvey and Gail Fenner. If you thought there was 'something rotten in the state of Denmark', try to get to grips with such mega-families like Liliaceae. De Candolle counted flower parts, and clumped a vast range of plants into a single family. Molecular biology and biochemistry have allowed botanists to tease these out into smaller families.

Volunteers Rod Mulvey and Gail Jenner led us round the beds, laid out according to La Candolle's groupings, and explained how biochemistry and DNA analysis mean that former classification is now superseded by far more precise evaluation.
The last time I thought about Liliaceae, it was a mega family, totally unwieldy. It's now sensibly split into several new ones. Alliaceae is the most obvious spin off. We know alliaceous members when we weep over them in the kitchen. Turns out they contain saponins (onion soap, anybody?).

Rod Mulvey also showed us the beds occupied by Fallopia spp - Japanese knotweed. It made me realise the 'botanical' necessity of preserving the most invasive species. Preventing the spread of F. japonica, and its even more vigorous relative, F kamchatskensis, from its assigned bed, involves chopping down the plants and having a bonfire over the remains. Not entirely successful, alas.

Tim Upson, photo by Margaret WaddyRod's tour took in the whole range of the Systematic Beds. He commented that the hawthorn hedging that separates different plant genealogical groups may need to be dug up and re-arranged in future, once current techniques have sorted out truer relationships than those evaluated by 250 years ago.

Dr Tim Upson (pictured right with Margaret Waddy) led groups through the CUBG trees. One of his most powerful messages was that our native trees, like the beech, may find it difficult to survive in the south of England in the next 50 years. We may need to shift plantations of timber trees, like beech, further north, or find substitutes. The tour ended at Cladastris kentuckea - a street tree in southern France. Might this be the future for our avenues?

CUBG continues to evolve. The latest project is a Schools' Garden, with input from a local school and volunteers. Its aim is for children to know more about the environment; growing crops and understanding how we rely on horticulture for our future.

Most of the exhibits and explanation boards will remain in place. I'd recommend that anyone who chooses to visit Cambridge, spend a couple of hours or more at CUBG.

For more info, visit: http://www.botanic.cam.ac.uk/Botanic/Home.aspx

Plant of the Month

hops, photos by Evelyn Simak (upper) and Simon Carey (lower)Humulus lupulus, hops, Cannabaceae

The hop plant is a dioecious, perennial, climber native to Europe, western Asia and North America. It is also used ornamentally in gardens, with over 20 different options listed in the RHS Plant Finder. The hop plant gets its botanical name Humulus from an apparently latinised version of the Low German or Slav name for the hop. The specific epithet of lupulus meaning small wolf is an allusion to the plant's habit of smothering the trees over which it grows.

The flowers are key to the hops ornamental uses as well as their economic importance. The female flowers, which grow in short bracteates spikes (pictured upper right by Evelyn Simak), which are cone like at maturity, are the key flavouring and stability agent in beer. The hops contain a range of bacteriostatic, resinous and bitter substances (including alkaloids like codeine and morphine) that are important to the brewing process. They favour the activity of brewers' yeast over other less desirable microorganisms. The alcohol produced during the fermentation process further sterilises the beer thus rendering beer potable from otherwise non-potable water.

formulae for hops

Growing up in Kent, the hop fields or gardens that the county is famous for (in 2002 the hop was voted the county flower of Kent), were a familiar site (picture lower right by Simon Carey). We even had one school outing to a hop field and brewery! The plants are grown up wires, strung between sturdy pole, allowing much greater growth over a given area of ground. Only female plants are grown, thus preventing pollination and seed set which would be detrimental to the crop. The growing of hops for beer production has had enormous impact on our social history and on our landscape. Those living in hop growing areas will be familiar with the Oast Houses (structures used for drying the hop harvest) populating the rural landscape in those regions. Older readers may even remember having a 'holiday' hop picking in Kent, when there was a huge seasonal demand for migrant workers to undertake the hop picking work.

Alison Foster
Oxford Botanic Garden

Medicinal Plant of the Month

cannabis, photo by David Potter, GW Pharma Cannabis sativa, cannabis, marijuana, Cannabaceae

In the same family as the hop, Cannabis shares some of the same properties. As well as being the source of drugs (both legal and recreational (illegal), this plant is the source of fibre - in this case hemp. This fibre is used to make ropes, material, and the seed is also used to make varnishes and for bird seed. (Picture right, Dr Alison Foster in a cannabis research glasshouse - thanks to David Potter, GW Pharmaceuticals)

The name cannabis is derived from a language of Central Asia or the Near East and gives rise to both the English words 'canvas' and 'hemp', the latter resulting from the substitution of h for k and of f or p or b in Teutonic languages, a process called the Gothonic sound-shift.

There are commonly accepted to be two strains. The first is Cannabis sativa subsp. sativa - which is the more northerly hemp strain mainly used for making paper, fibre etc. It has been cultivated in China for 4500 years and it was almost obligatory in Elizabethan times to grow it in England - but its cultivation has been illegal in the UK since 1951.

The second is Cannabis sativa subsp. indica - which is the more southerly strain - and is mainly grown for the psychotropic constituents.

The use of cannabis as a pain relief medication for sufferers of HIV/AIDS, cancer and multiple sclerosis is a controversial subject today. The main active constituent of cannabis, tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) has been investigated by a number of smaller pharmaceutical companies including GW Pharmaceuticals based in the UK. Their product, Sativex is a mixture of THC and cannabidiol (CBD) which has been formulated to control pain whilst minimising the unwanted psychotropic and other side-effects. Sativex has recently been licensed in the UK for the treatment of spasticity due to Multiple Sclerosis. It is also licensed for use in Canada for symptomatic relief of neuropathic pain. Cannabinol is a non-psychoactive component of the plant extract. Pure (synthetic) THC, in tablet form, is available on prescription in the United States of America under the trade name Marinol (generic name dronabinol). It is approved for use as an appetite stimulant in AIDS-related anorexia and as an anti- emetic for patients undertaking cancer chemotherapy who have failed to respond to conventional anti-emetic treatments.


Anyone who wants to cultivate cannabis today (even the cultivation of hemp strain or non-THC containing) must obtain a Home Office license. The University of Oxford Botanic Garden is grateful to GW Pharmaceuticals for their support in helping us to obtain our Home Office license.

Alison Foster
Oxford Botanic Garden

News from our Associates

International Society for Horticultural Science
International Society of Horticulture LogoSeeking to share horticulture's scope and value with a wide readership, the International Society of Horticultural Science (ISHS) has released Harvesting the Sun: A Profile of World Horticulture. This full-colour, extensively illustrated 70-page report examines how horticulture touches all of us. Harvesting the Sun traces the farm-to-table journey using simple language and informative graphics. It highlights innovations in crop breeding, production, and handling, presenting recent advances in how to control pests and diseases, promote food safety, and minimize post-harvest losses. It explores how horticulture offers myriad paths to economic growth, and offers insights into how the cultivation of plants nourishes the spirit as well as the body. Harvesting the Sun brings the benefits of horticultural science to the attention of a wider audience. ISHS hopes that this publication will spark new interest in the people and processes that coax fruits, roots, leaves, and flowers to yield health, wealth, and beauty worldwide. More

Horticulture Industry News

For the very latest horticultural news follow us on Facebook iconFacebook,TwitterTwitter, or LinkedIn

Avacado fruit, photo by Bruno NavezFungus-farming beetle threatens..
Ambrosia beetles bore into trees and cultivate fungi to use as a food source for their young. The fungus, a species of Fusarium, can damage or even kill trees, making the beetle and its fungi a threat to avocado production. The ambrosia beetle that is threatening avocado crops is similar to many other ambrosia beetles, including one discovered attacking the invasive Ailanthus altissima trees, the Tree of Heaven, in the north east US. While the type of beetle threatening avocado crops attacks living trees, the ambrosia beetle associated with the Ailanthus is less of a problem because it is only known to attack trees that are dying or already dead, Kasson said. However, researchers are worried that hybrid versions of either the beetle or fungus could pose a larger threat to farms and forests. More (Picture of Avocado by Bruno Navez)

.. while earthworm eating beetle boosts plant growth
A frightened earthworm is a plant's best friend. Researchers testing the ecological role of the earthworm Pheretima aspergillum in an alpine meadow have found that when a beetle that preys on earthworms is present, plants grew more. The presence of the beetles also increased the quality of the deeper soil. When beetles were present, earthworms migrated to the deeper soil, probably to avoid the beetles' foraging range. The earthworms broke up this deeper soil, and nutrients and water moved into it. The researchers speculate that the enriching nutrients and water brought to this deeper soil may have been more valuable to plants than the improvements to the upper soil that occurred when the predatory beetles were absent and the earthworms remained in the upper soil. More

Why crop rotation works
Crop rotation has been used since Roman times to improve plant nutrition and to control the spread of disease. A new study reveals the profound effect it has on enriching soil with bacteria, fungi and protozoa. Changing the crop species massively changes the content of microbes in the soil, which in turn helps the plant to acquire nutrients, regulate growth and protect itself against pests and diseases, boosting yield. Soil collected from a field near Norwich was planted with wheat, oats and peas. After growing wheat, it remained largely unchanged and the microbes in it were mostly bacteria. However, growing oat and pea in the same sample caused a huge shift towards protozoa and nematode worms. Soil grown with peas was highly enriched for fungi. The soil around the roots was similar before and after growing wheat, but peas and oats re-set of the diversity of microbes. More

How Successful Plants Take the Lead
Why are some plant species rare, and others common? Why do certain exotic plant species become invasive - while others do not? Swiss scientists have now identified the most important environmental and species characteristics for plants to colonize and establish in novel places. Germinating quickly, growing fast, withstanding competitors and defending against herbivores have been suggested as the important characteristics of successful plants. However, it has also been suggested that species characteristics are less important as determinants of plant establishment success than other factors such as seed availability or environmental characteristics, like dense vegetation. The Swiss research showed that seed numbers and seed size aided early establishment. However, over time traits related to interactions between plants and plants or animals became increasingly important. More

Efficiency in the forest
A study has found that, spurred by increasing levels of atmospheric carbon dioxide, forests over the past two decades have become dramatically more efficient in how they use water. Studies had long predicted that plants would begin to use water more efficiently as atmospheric carbon dioxide levels rose. Now a team has found that forests around the world are becoming more efficient than expected. Using data collected from forests in the north eastern United States and around the world they found greater increases in efficiency than those predicted by even the most state-of-the-art computer models. More

Call for more female trees to be planted in the city
Horticulturist Peter Prakke has a warning for the city: if we don't start planting more female trees, expect more visits to the emergency room. He has been studying Hamilton's tree canopy for more than a decade and researching how to reduce pollen particles that float in the air and cause allergy sufferers to sneeze, cough and itch like mad. Female trees do not produce pollen and are allergy free, which means there is nothing in the tree that would trigger an allergic reaction. Prakke believes if there is an overbalance in male trees, people who suffer from asthma could see their symptoms worsen and those who have mild allergies could also see increased breathing problems. More

Selecting for plants with thinner roots could improve drought tolerance
Plants with thinner roots can grow deeper, a trait which could be exploited in lands affected by drought and nutrient deprivation. New research shows that maize roots which have fewer cortical cells in the outer layer of their roots are more efficient at accessing water and nutrients. A research team found that maize roots show natural variation in the number of cortical cells in their roots which can be selected preferentially for cultivation on land where deep roots are an advantage. A field shows that a lower number of cortical cells, reduces the energetic cost of soil exploration by the roots. The lower number of cortical cells means that the plants need less nutrient to maintain the root cells. In drought-stressed maize this trait increases rooting depth, as the plants can spend more nutrients growing deeper, which improves water acquisition, growth, and yield. More

CURT Proteins bend chloroplast membranes
Thylakoids are made of stacks of 5 to 20 flat membrane sacs called grana, and extended planar membrane sheets that serve to interconnect them, so that all thylakoids in a chloroplast form a continuous network. To form the stacks of appressed sacs, the membrane must be bent into a tight fold at their edges. Researchers have now identified a new family of proteins, whose members spontaneously cause membranes to bend. The researchers call them CURT1 proteins (for CURvature of Thylakoids). Without CURT1 proteins, there are no stacks. Using the model plant Arabidopsis, the researchers have been able to show that the concentration of CURT is directly correlated with the number of thylakoid stacks in chloroplasts. CURT1 itself is primarily localized at the edges of the grana, exactly where the membrane is maximally curved. More

Tobacco Plants Grow Huge Quantities of Vaccines in a New Robotic Factory
A team of biologists and engineers have created the first 'living foundry' capable of producing 2.5 million units of vaccine in just seven days using genetically altered tobacco plants, tended by robots. Molecular farming, as this vaccine-production method is known, introduces the genetic information needed to produce a 'target' protein into plants. Tobacco plants are used because they multiply and maintain the virus vectors very well. In addition, they grow fast yielding, large quantities of biomass in a short period of time. The proteins are then harvested to make vaccines. More (Tobacco plants pictured right by Derek Ramsey)

Fungus covers fragments of its own cell wall to avoid plant defences
Back in 2010, scientists learned that the fungus Cladosporium produces a compound - the so-called Ecp6 protein - which makes it invisible to the immune system of plants. The immune systems of plants and animals use special compounds to destroy invading micro-organisms such as fungi. For instance, the immune system uses chitinases, enzymes that can dissolve the cell walls of fungi, to combat fungal infections. This process releases pieces of chitin, that allow plants to sense the presence of an intruder, and to reinforce the immune response. The fungal Ecp6 protein seeks out these pieces of chitin and adheres to them. This hides the chitin particles from the plant the same way that a stealth aircraft is invisible to radar. The immune system of the plant therefore no longer receives the signal to ramp up its activity, allowing the fungus to infect the plant without being noticed. More

Events Calendar

SCI Horticulture Group events are listed here

Other Events of Interest

C4 and CAM Plant Biology
6 - 9 Aug 2013, University of Illinois
Champaign, USA

Potatoes in Practice
8 Aug 2013, James Hutton Institute
Dundee, UK

Photosynthesis: Opportunities and Challenges of the 21st Century
11 Aug 2013, University of Illinois
St Louis, USA

Plant Cryopreservation
11 - 14 Aug 2013, International Society for Horticultural Science
Fort Collins, USA

Horticulture Economics, Marketing and Consumer Research
19 - 21 Aug 2013, International Society for Horticultural Science
Portland, USA

21 - 24 Aug 2013, Plantarium
Boskoop, The Netherlands

Cucurbit Growers Group Launch
22 Aug 2013, British Growers
Cambridge, UK

Rose Research and Cultivation
25 - 30 Aug 2013, International Society for Horticultural Science
Hanover, Germany

28 - 30 Aug 2013, International Society for Horticultural Science
Bordeaux, France

Managing Quality in Chains
2 - 5 Sep 2013, International Society for Horticultural Science
Cranfield, UK

Tropical Horticulture
2 - 6 Sep 2013, International Society for Horticultural Science
Santiago de Querétaro, Mexico

Image Analysis Methods in the Plant Sciences
2 - 3 Sep 2013, Nottingham University
Nottingham, UK

Fungal diseases, diagnostics and drug discovery
2 - 4 Sep 2013, Society for General Microbiology (SGM) and British Society for Medical Mycology
Brighton, UK

Four Oaks Trade Show
3 - 4 Sep 2013
Lower Withington, UK

Plum Pox Virus
3 - 6 Sep 2013, International Society for Horticultural Science
Olomouc, Czech Republic

Agchem Forum
4 - 5 Sep 2013, British Crop Production Council
Barcelona, Spain

International Strawberry Congress
4 - 6 Sep 2013, Hoogstraten
Antwerp, Belgium

Green viruses, from gene to landscape
7 - 11 Sep 2013, EMBO
Hyères-les-Palmiers,, France

Managing the Urban Forest
8 - 11 Sep 2013, Arboriculture Association
Exeter, UK

Ornamentals in Africa
9 - 13 Sep 2013, International Society for Horticultural Science
Naivasha, Kenya

Potato Europe
11 - 12 Sep 2013, DLG
Emmeloord, The Netherlands

Regulation of Fertilization and Early Seed Development
11 - 13 Sep 2013, Biochemical Society
Bath, UK

Landscape and Urban Horticulture
12 - 14 Sep 2013, International Society for Horticultural Science
Kolkata, India

Open Afternoon at Warwick Crop Centre
18 Sep 2013, Warwick Crop Centre
Warwick, UK

Pomegranate and Minor Mediterranean Fruits
20 - 24 Sep 2013, International Society for Horticultural Science
Taian, China

24 - 25 Sep 2013, Select Biosciences
Norwich, UK

Knowing your enemy - the future of crop protection
5 Sep 2013, HGCA
London, UK

International Advances in Plant Virology
25 - 27 Sep 2013, Association of Applied Biologists
Norwich, UK

Sustainable intensification: The pathway to low carbon farming?
25 - 27 Sep 2013
Edinburgh, UK

BCPC Congress
1 - 2 Oct 2013, British Crop Production Council
Brighton, UK

South West Growers Show
2 Oct 2013
Exeter, UK

New Technologies for Environment Control, Energy-saving and Crop Production in Greenhouse and Plant Factory
6 - 11 Oct 2013, International Society for Horticultural Science
Jeju, Republic of Korea

Crop Breeding over 10,000 years; Lessons for current and future challenges
7 - 8 Oct 2013, Association of Applied Biologists
Cambridge, UK

European Congress on Chestnut
9 - 12 Oct 2013, International Society for Horticultural Science
Debrecen, Hungary

Medicinal Plants and Natural Products
14 - 16 Oct 2013, International Society for Horticultural Science
Lima, Peru

IPM: Pushing Back the Frontiers
15 - 16 Oct 2013, Association of Applied Biologists
Marston, UK

Asparagus Symposium
17 - 19 Oct 2013, International Society for Horticultural Science
Nanchang, China

Organic Matter Management and Compost Use in Horticulture
20 - 25 Oct 2013, International Society for Horticultural Science
Santiago, Chile

Eighth National Congress of Applied Entomology
21 - 25 Oct 2013, University of Barcelona
Barcelona, Spain

Cactus Pear and Cochineal
28 - 30 Oct 2013, International Society for Horticultural Science
Palermo, Italy

Organic Greenhouse Horticulture
28 - 31 Oct 2013, International Society for Horticultural Science
Avignon, France

Crop World Global
29 - 30 Oct 2013, UBM
Amsterdam, The Netherlands

If you would like to advertise a forthcoming event please contact. ester.monfort@soci.org

Horticulture Group Contact Details

For submitting ideas or to volunteer to be part of a committee or a group, please contact:

Chairman - Peter Grimbly
Meetings Secretary - Alison Foster
Minutes Secretary - Margaret Waddy
Newsletter co-ordinator - Sue Grimbly scihortigroup@btinternet.com
Group Contact - Ester Monfort Martinez, E: ester.monfort@soci.org T: +44(0)20 7598 1584

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