This month in SCI's journals

3 November 2022

From protecting wind turbine blades to industrial uses of marine bacteria – a roundup of the latest research from SCI's journals

Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture 

Mushroom in the circular economy

With the rapid growth of the global economy and population, the production of solid waste has increased remarkably. Mushrooms are gaining popularity among researchers for their ability to turn waste into nutrients. However, a large number of by-products are produced during the industrial processing of mushrooms. Traditional waste management, focusing on the utilisation and disposal of mushroom by-products, has attracted the attention of researchers.

The circular economy is a multidisciplinary research field, and valorisation is an essential part of circular economy research. In this paper, published in The Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, by-products of mushroom are reviewed.

Valorization of mushroom by-products: a review

Biofpr: Biofuels, Bioproducts & Biorefining 

How sustainable is bio-based isobutine?

Isobutene (IBN, C4H8) is widely used in industry, but production relies on petrochemical processes. Could bio-based alternatives improve the sustainability of this important petrochemical feedstock? This study assesses the comparative environmental sustainability of bio-based IBN production routes based on first- and second-generation sugar, compared to fossil IBN by applying the ISO 14044 based Life Cycle Assessment methodology.

Comparative LCA of 1st and 2nd generation bio-isobutene as a drop-in substitute for fossil isobutene

Greenhouse Gases Science and Technology 

A seismic effort

This study investigates the contribution of fluid saturation variation to the time-lapse velocity response by performing fluid substitution modelling. The methodology is exemplified by the time-lapse seismic monitoring of carbon dioxide at Farnsworth field unit (FWU) – a mature oilfield in the northeast Texas panhandle. In order to evaluate the fluid distribution in a matured oil reservoir, the Southwest Regional Partnership acquired multiple vertical seismic profile surveys at different times during the CO2–water alternating gas injection period.

Quantitative interpretation of time-lapse seismic data at Farnsworth field unit: Rock physics modeling, and calibration of simulated time-lapse velocity responses

Energy Science & Engineering 

We need to talk about wind turbine blades

Wind turbine blades are multipart, high-aspect-ratio, thin-walled structures made of glass-fibre or carbon-fibre composite, and the many subcomponents of which a blade is comprised are produced separately and connected with each other via adhesive bonding in most manufacturing processes. These bonding connections can reduce the integrity of the blade and become a weak link, especially the trailing edge joints, which are notoriously vulnerable to damage.

This paper presents a numerical method for analysing the influence of the quantitative design of multiple repair parameters on bonding strength and aerodynamic characteristics of an in-service blade with repaired debonding trailing edges.

Study on the repair parameters for trailing-edge bonding failure of wind turbine blade in service doi/10.1002/ese3.1318

Pest Management Science 

Managing invasive plants

Invasive plant species (IPS) are often considered weeds that cause high yield losses in crops, negatively affect the environment, and disrupt certain ecosystem services. The negative impact of IPS on biodiversity is increasing, and disturbing native vegetation.

The management of plant invasions can be divided in two phases – before and after invasion. Prior to introduction, it is crucial to develop the knowledge base (biology, ecology, distribution, impact, management) on IPS, prevention measures and risk assessment. After introduction, if eradication fails, the monitoring and the integrated management of IPS are imperative to prevent the naturalisation and further dispersal.

This review uses two major invasive weeds as case studies to propose a framework for early detection, rapid herbicide resistance screening, and integrated management.

Early detection, herbicide resistance screening, and integrated management of invasive plant species: a review doi/10.1002/ps.6963

Polymer International 

PU foams everywhere

Polyurethane (PU) foam materials have started to replace metals and plastics in various engineering applications, combining the hardness and durability of metal with the flexibility of rubber. They can be synthesised with various isocyanates, polyols, chain extenders and crosslinkers to serve many specific applications, such as bio-based composite foam and flexible hard/soft PU foam. This review article mostly concentrates on the basic chemistry of the building blocks of PUs and recent developments in industrial applications of PU foams, such as insulator material, sound insulators, refrigerator and freezing insulators, furniture, shoes, automotive materials, coatings and adhesives and other applications.

Polyurethane foam materials and their industrial applications doi/10.1002/pi.6441

Journal of Chemical Technology and Biotechnology 

Getting the most out of marine bacteria

Over the last two decades, a wealth of novel marine exopolysaccharides (EPS) from bacteria have been found to possess many potential applications in industrial, medical, and environmental applications due to their chemical structure, which determines their functional properties.

Marine bacteria communities rely on EPS to endure the extremes of temperature, salinity, and nutrient availability found in this ecosystem. Bacterial EPS are biodegradable, generally not toxic, and renewable with potential applications in many fields. However, the major challenge faced by marine bacteria EPS for commercial application is the high production cost that limits downstream processes, so the optimisation of the fermentation parameters has been researched to achieve large-scale production.

This review summarises the characteristics and properties of marine bacterial EPS and evaluates some of the most important findings in the development of fermentation strategies that have shown promising results in terms of productivity improvement.

Advances in exopolysaccharide production from marine bacteria doi/10.1002/jctb.7156

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